TEPSA Newsletter October 2012 Edition


 "Euro zone governance and democratic legitimacy" by Jean-Paul Jacqué

In its interim report “Towards a genuine Economic and Monetary Union” of the 12nd October 2012, President Van Rompuy devoted few lines in the end to democratic legitimacy. This paragraph gives the impression of paying lip service to the concept, rather than reflections on its applicability in the 'genuine' Economic and Monetary Union. The report does nonetheless clearly outline the subject matter. To the extent the core aspects of the Euro zone governance are fulfilled at intergovernmental level, the democratic oversight of the Euro zone naturally lies within the competency of national parliaments. The European Parliament also has a role to play in the democratic oversight of the Euro zone insofar the governance of the Euro zone is governed by the community method . No need to emphasize on this second point, since it clearly emerges from the treaties.

Regarding the role of the national parliaments however, it is interesting to assess to what extent national parliaments actually play a role in the system. After all, the decisions taken at European level have not only an impact on the power of the national parliaments, but also and most of all, on the life of citizens in the member states. The last years have demonstrated that national political debates focused on EU’s economic and monetary activities. The successive austerity plans imposed on some Euro zone members have also compelled these governments to feed these constraints into national debates. Another implication is that national Heads of State and Government individually bear the consequences of the decisions taken by the European Council in Brussels in their national arena.

A study currently elaborated by TEPSA in collaboration with Notre Europe on the role of national parliaments in oversight of the positions taken by Head of State or Government in the European Council shows a remarkable development in this field. The study demonstrates that nowadays in 17 Member States formal rules exist on the participation of national parliaments in the preparation of the European Councils. These rules can be applied mutatis mutandis to Euro zone summits. They vary between the member states and are more developed in those which have already established a system of oversight on the activity of the Council of the EU. There is a tendency that can be observed in favour of a priori control by providing documents and organising debates before European Council meetings. This a priori oversight consists more often of issuing non-binding recommendations than giving a legally or politically binding mandate. Meanwhile, the practice of debates on the outcome of European Councils is maintained. Insofar the Prime Minister personally takes part to the European Council and a Euro zone summit, his participation in debates in the national parliament is particularly important. The future will tell whether this practice will become widespread.

The trend shows it is no longer only about submitting politically binding positions ex post that can be adopted. Instead it is also about orienting the position of the government during the European Council meeting in question. However, this trend has some limitations. First of all, it faces the still largely informal character of European Council meetings. It is difficult to provide national parliaments with comprehensive information on future conclusions which are still under negotiation. It is neither possible nor desirable for national positions to be fully publicly discussed before the meeting or even subject to a national mandate. This would risk to reduce the bargaining power. National parliaments can only shape general recommendations, which will be subjected to the Prime Minister or the President’s interpretation while acknowledging that if it deviates too much from the mandate given by his parliament it could impact on his/her political responsibility. The above mentioned report will suggest in this sense a set of best practices.

However, considering that the Euro zone governance uses both community and intergovernmental methods, it is deemed essential to ensure that the positions of national parliaments and of the European Parliament are not entirely in conflict, otherwise difficulties of implementation would soon arise. For this particular reason national parliamentary debates should initiate an exchange of views between national parliaments and the European Parliament. Article 13 of the Treaty on Stability, Cooperation and Governance provides for cooperation between the European Parliament and specialised committees of national parliaments. It would be advisable that this cooperation is set-up at an early stage and not only focuses on Euro zone summits’, but also on the work undertaken in the framework of the European Semester. A parliamentary network has already been formed in the field of foreign policy, it is essential that a similar network starts to function on Euro zone issues without delay.

One cannot request efforts from the European citizens unless they have the conviction of being listened to and understood. Solidarity is not born spontaneously from a generous feeling, it must be based on the idea that efforts undertaken by everyone will benefit to all. So far we have not found any better way to achieve this outcome than through a debate between representatives of the people. Democratic legitimacy is therefore part of the responses to the crisis.

Introducing a TEPSA Member Institute: the Austrian Institute for International Affairs (oiip)

The Austrian Institute for International Affairs (oiip) is a politically independent academic research center based in Vienna. It was founded in 1978 on the initiative of then Austrian Federal Chancellor Bruno Kreisky. The oiip is a public non-profit institution, overseen by an executive board of governors consisting partly of former top political leaders. Since September 2011 the former Austrian Minister for the Interior and Science Caspar Einem holds the position of President.

The oiip was the first and is currently the largest Institute in Austria to focus on globalization, European integration, comprehensive security, and the comparative study of International Affairs. It advises on public policy issues, conducts primary scientific research, supports international academic exchange, and plays a key role in hosting international conferences. Above that the oiip also functions as a venue for second-track diplomacy. Members of the Institute publish widely, are regularly consulted by the government, and frequently featured in national and international media.

Publications such as the oiip Policy Paper Series are constantly being updated and can be downloaded from our website (www.oiip.ac.at). Examples of our ongoing research include projects related to International Science and Technology Policy; Preventing and Combating all Forms of Human Trafficking; Cyber Attack Information System; Austrian Program for Critical Infrastructure Protection; Tunisia at the Crossroads, and many more.

The oiip is proud to look back on more than 30 successful years of analyzing the pressing issues in the constantly evolving field of International Affairs. The institute has always sought to provide up-to-date analysis and policy consultation to politicians, civil servants, and diplomats as well as private businesses and the media.

Members of the Institute have been participating in, and advising Austrian diplomatic delegations. They take part in various policy committees of both national and international bodies, and are engaged in non-governmental organizations and civil society activities. Regularly, our experts present both the scientific aspects of their work as well as the overall Austrian research position on International Affairs to national and international expert groups and fora.

The oiip conducts basic research in the following subject areas: • The European Union • Comprehensive / Human Security and Conflict Management • Comparative Regional Research (Europe, Middle East, Mediterranean and Turkey, USA – Transatlantic Relations, Asia, and Africa).

Contact: Österreichisches Institut für Internationale Politik – oiip Berggasse 7 A-1090 Vienna Austria Tel. +43/(1)/581 11 06 Email: info@oiip.ac.at  Website: www.oiip.ac.at

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News from the TEPSA Secretariat

University of Bologna Institute of Advanced Studies (ISA) Medal for Science 2012 to Jean Paul Jacqué.

On proposal of the Council of the Institute of Advanced Studies, Dario Braga, Vice Rector delegated for Research of the University of Bologna, has delivered the ISA Medal for Science to Jean Paul Jacqué for his important contribution to European law and in general European integration on 22nd October 2012. The ISA Medal for Science is the highest honour awarded by the Institute "in recognition of research contributions characterized by both excellence and influence". Jean Paul Jacqué, Professor at the University of Strasbourg and at the Collège d'Europe, law expert, is Secretary General of TEPSA since 2010. Prof. Lucia Serena Rossi says that Prof. Jacqué has always got a clear vision that influenced positively the European institutions. His work has contributed to some of the most important European moments, as Spinell'is project, Charter of fundamental rights of the European Union, European acts.

Please find more information on this event here.

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EXACT fellows' teach in a Masters-level seminar on ‘EU external action: examples and analyses from current practice’

The EXACT fellows Miguel Haubrich Seco and Simon Stroß conduct a Masters-level seminar titled ‘EU external action: examples and analyses from current practice’ in the current winter semester 2012/13 at the Charles University in Prague. The seminar will enable the students to learn and apply knowledge on EU external action on a concrete policy example such as the Free Trade Agreement of the EU with South Korea, EU neighbourhood policy after the Arab Spring or the involvement of the EU in international climate change negotiations. In doing so, the students shall get acquainted with theoretical explanations as well as with the political practice.

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Recent TEPSA events

EXACT Network Seminar on Academic Research Skills and Higher Education Qualifications

The two-week EXACT Network Seminar on Academic Research Skills and Higher Education Qualifications took place between 15th and 28th September 2012 in Cologne. It was organized by the Jean-Monnet-Chair, Prof. Wessels, Department of Political Science. The symposium was directed by Dr. Geoffrey Edwards (EXACT Visiting Scientist, University of Cambridge) and Dr. Robert Kissack (EXACT Visiting Scientist, Institut Barcelona d` Estudis Internacionals). Participants included the thirteen EXACT Research Fellows with another eight external guest researchers. An academically outstanding program combined with professional expertise of the guest speakers reflected the spirit of the EXACT program as a silver thread throughout the whole Seminar. A Public Roundtable Discussion on “EU Executive Powers and External Action” involving EXACT Visiting Scientists, EXACT Members as well as EXACT Researchers was only one of the highlights during these two weeks. The expertise of guest speakers contributed fundamentally to the further development of research skills, academic writing as well as publishing and funding options and strategies. More information available here.

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Workshop on "Challenges of multi-tier governance in the EU", European Parliament, 4 October 2012

On Thursday October 4th 2012, the Constitutional Affairs Committee of the European Parliament organised a workshop on Challenges of multi-tier governance in the EU. The Constitutional Affairs Committee had invited several experts to discuss the topic in four panels: 1) Flexibility and differentiated integration under Lisbon treaty: What is the impact of the differentiated integration on the functioning of the EU?; 2) European and national institutions in multi-tier governance: What are the roles and tasks for the EU institutions and national institutions?; 3) Legitimacy and accountability of the multi-tier governance: Does multi-tier governance challenge the EU legitimacy and its accountability to the citizens?; 4) Multi-tier governance beyond existing mechanisms: Are new competencies, powers and constitutional mechanism needed?

Several researchers from the TEPSA network were invited, including Jean-Victor Louis, Honorary Member of the TEPSA Board, on "Institutional dilemmas of the Economic and Monetary Union"; Renaud Dehousse, Director of the Centre d’études européennes of Sciences Po – TEPSA's French member institute, on "Inter-institutional balance in the EU: is the community method still relevant?"; Wolfgang Wessels, Chairperson of the TEPSA Board, on "How to assess an institutional architecture for a multi-level Parliamentarism in differentiated integration?"; and Iain Begg, Member of the TEPSA Board, on "Budgetary solidarity in multi-tiered Union?".

The programme as well as the outlines of the participants ' presentations are available.

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Upcoming TEPSA events

TEPSA Guest Lecture on "The Schengen agreement under discussion", Centre d’études et de recherches européennes Robert Schuman, Luxembourg, 6 November 2012

A guest lecture by Prof. Virginie Guiraudon from Paris Sciences Po University and Mr. Raoul Ueberecken from the Luxembourg Ministry of Foreign Affairs will be held in the House of Europe of the representation of the European Commission in Luxembourg. The discussions will address political and diplomatic developments in the Schengen area, from a European and Luxembourgish perspective respectively. The representation of the European Commission in Luxembourg supports the conference

Please find more information on this TEPSA guest lecture here. Registration are open until the 30 October 2012 at crs@cere.etat.lu.

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TEPSA Irish Pre-Presidency Conference, 22-23 November 2012

The Irish Pre-Presidency Conference is organised by the Institute of International and European Affairs (IIEA) and will take place on 22 - 23 November 2012 in Dublin. The Conference will notably include panels on the Internal and External Security of the Union, Economic Governance in Europe, Building a Smart and Green Economy, the Future of Europe and the Foreign Policy Agenda. Those key issues will be presented by members of the Irish government and analyzed by invited speakers and panelists, top officials and scholars from across Europe. During the Pre-Presidency Conference TEPSA will also present the Recommendations to the Irish Presidency. The draft programme will be available soon. Read online.


THESEUS Conference “France and Germany in the EU – 50 years after Elysée. The couple viewed by their European partners”, 6-7 December 2012

This year’s THESEUS Conference “France and Germany in the EU – 50 years after Elysée. The couple viewed by their European partners”, co-organised by TEPSA and the University of Cologne, is going to take place at the Representation of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia to the EU in Brussels on 6 and 7 December 2012. Building up on a 50 years’ history of Franco-German relationship, the conference will raise the question: What role the Franco-German couple can and will play in the future Europe. The Elysée Treaty, signed 50 years ago by Konrad Adenauer and Charles De Gaulle, can be considered as the beginning of a unique partnership that has played since then a fundamental role in the European integration process. However, none of that would have been possible if the bilateral initiatives not had been endorsed by other member states. Often Franco-German initiatives are characterised as compromise that could prepare the ground for agreements between all member states. Can and will this situation continue in the light of the current crisis? How is the relationship perceived by their European partners from North, South, Central and Eastern Europe?

Thus, the conference will bring together researchers and politicians from a cross-section of EU member states, as for example Philippe de Schoutheete (Former Belgian Ambassador to the EU), Jacek Saryusz-Wolski (Member of the European Parliament), Alfred Grosser (Sciences Po Paris), William Paterson (Aston University, Birmingham), Gianni Bonvicini (Instituto Affari Internazionali, Rome) and Atila Eralp (Middle East Technical University, Ankara). After a short historical look back, Franco-German convergences and divergences nowadays will be explored using the two examples of the Euro crisis and the EU external action.

In the evening of 6 December the THESEUS Awards for Outstanding Research will be remitted by Catherine Day, Secretary-General of the European Commission, to Brigid Laffan, Professor of European Politics at the University College Dublin for her outstanding academic record in the field of European integration.

For the detailed programme and further information, please visit the THESEUS website.

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Studies and workshops for the European Parliament

Under the European Parliament's Framework Contract that TEPSA won in 2009, TEPSA was requested to provide expertise to the Budgetary, Foreign Affairs and Security and Defence Committees to write a study on:

Workshop on The EU and China: Strategic partners or global rivals? This workshop took place on 21 June 2012 at the European Parliament in Brussels. The final report of this workshop is available here.

Study and workshop on the Assessment of the EU’s approach to Security Sector Reform This study has been lately requested and is currently elaborated by Eva Gross, Senior Research Fellow for European Foreign and Security Policy, EGE - IES - Vrije Universiteit Brussel. The final version of the study will be delivered on the 5 December 2012. The workshop will take place on the 28 November 2012. The experts taking part in the workshop are the following: Andebrhan Welde Giorgis (VUB University), Joachim Koops (Vesalius College & Institute for European Studies VUB Univeristy), Alexandra Dias (Institute Centro de Estudos Africanos - University of Lisbon), Andre Kalhmeyer (Fragility & Crisis Management Channel Research).

Study and workshop on the Maritime Dimension of the Common Foreign and Security Policy This study has been lately requested and is currently elaborated by researchers from the Finnish Institute of International Affairs: Mika Aaltola, Timo Behr, Mikael Mattlin and Charly Salonius-Pasternak and by researchers from the Swedish Institute of International Affairs: Erik Brattberg, Harri Mikkola and Mark Rinhard. Andreas Raspotnik, EXACT Marie Curie researcher, under the Marie Curie Integrated Training Network on EU External Action (EXACT), University of Cologne is also taking part in the elaboration of the study on the Great North issue. The final version of the study should delivered by 3 January 2012. The workshop will take place on the 27 November 2012. The experts taking part in the workshop are the following: Mika Aaltola, Erik Brattberg, and Basil Germond from the Lancaster University.

Study on the assessment of the effectiveness of the EU strategy in the Horn of Africa This study has been elaborated by Alex Vines, OBE, Research Director at Chatham House and Ahmed Soliman, Research Assistant at Chatham House. The final version of the study is available here. Read online.


News from TEPSA member institutes

Call for paper for an international conference on EU and Emerging Powers, 15 November 2012

The Center for European Studies at UCL, the Leuven Centre for Global Governance Studies, KU Leuven, the College of Europe, the Department of Political Sciences at Ghent University, the Department of Political Science at ULg, the Institute for European studies at VUB, the Institute for European Studies at ULB and the Institute for European Studies at FUSL jointly organise an international conference on “The European Union and the Emerging Powers”. The conference will take place on 29 and 30 April 2013 at the European Parliament. The purpose of this conference will be to analyze how emerging powers influence the EU's external policies and its global governance strategy across four key dimensions: trade, development and finance; environment and energy; security; and human rights.

The organisers invite experts to contribute a paper which focuses on the relations between the European Union and emerging powers with regard to different issues in economic, security, environmental and energy as well as human rights.

Please find attached hereby the call for papers as well as the conference concept note. Please note that the deadline for the submission of paper proposals is on 15 November 2012. Proposals should be registered on the conference website.

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Call for application: postdoctoral researcher position, Futurepol

Futurepol seeks to recruit a postdoctoral researcher on a two year contract starting on January 1st 2013

Jenny Andersson received an ERC Starting-Grant to lead a 5 year research project on the history of knowledge production and forms of governance devoted to the long term. The Futurepol project started in January 2012 and brings together a research team dedicated to the research project. More information on the project can be found here.

The future offers a particular challenge for the governance of contemporary societies. What is the future, and can it be steered and controlled? Different societies over time and space have answered this question very differently, ranging from the oracles of Antiquity to the foresight processes of the European Union. A characteristic of modern societies is their belief in the knowability and governability of the future in their faith that the future can be known and controlled. We need to understand how contemporary societies attempt to know and govern the future, and how contemporary forms of future governance reflect claims of predictability and control. How European societies create futures? How and why do ideas of the future emerge at a certain moment? How does the future becomes a scientific and political object? These questions will give us new knowledge of how societies in different contexts over time and space deal with conflicting future visions.

Next seminar: 27 November 2012. Please find more information on Sciences-po calendar here. Read online.


Distinction: Patrick Le Galès, CNRS research director at Sciences Po, CEE, elected as President of the Society for Advanced socio- economics (SASE)

During 2012 conference, organized by the MIT, Patrick Le Gales, political scientist and sociologist, research director at the Center for European Studies, was elected president of the Society for Advanced socio-economics. The Society for Advanced socio-economics - SASE - is an international scientific organization, created twenty-five years ago and brings together sociologists, political scientists, economists, lawyers and managers ...Read online.

IEP launches new project to conduct study on the Value of Europe

The value of Europe is manifold. In the face of the current Eurozone crisis, however, public perception of these values is increasingly undermined, fostering negative attitudes towards European integration. In addition, there is a lack of a scientific assessment on Europe’s value, which is taking into account the current situation. Thus, the aim of the project developed by IEP is to conduct a study on the value of Europe for Germany and its citizens by shedding light on economic, societal and political dimensions of European integration. The research is based on the assumptions that parameters of political integration have changed severely, that public debates are increasingly Euro-skeptic, and that in Germany a general permissive consensus towards European integration no longer exists. Therefore, IEP sets out to analyze the costs and benefits of European integration in order to capture Europe’s value for Germany in more concrete terms. In this way, pro-European actors are given solid arguments for European integration in order to strengthen Germany’s capacity as a European actor in the long run. The key argument is that European integration is in Germany’s deep self-interest both as an export nation and as a member of the international community.

The findings of the study will be presented in Berlin in early 2013 and published in the framework of IEP’s publications series.

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Upcoming events hosted by TEPSA member institutes

Talk: Recent developments in the EU's area of Justice and Home Affairs, oiip, 24 October 2012

The Treaty of Lisbon changed the structure of the European Union. The former “Third Pillar” disappeared, the entire field of Justice and Home Affairs, also called the “Area of Freedom, Security and Justice”, is now basically determined by the ordinary legislative procedure, according to the Treaty on the ...Read online.


Panel discussion and book launch: Die USA nach den Wahlen, Austrian Institute for International Affairs (oiip), 8 November 2012

Panel Shawn Crowley, Embassy of the United States Stefan Fröhlich, Institute of Political Science , University of Erlangen Heinz Gärtner, Austrian Institute for International Affairs Welcome Words Otmar Höll, Director of the Austrian Institute for International Affairs Wilhelm Hopf, Publisher of LIT Münster Chair: Christoph Prantner, DER STANDARD Location: ...

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Conference on "Building Peace and Preventing Conflicts during Economic Turmoil", Finish Institute of International Affairs, Helsinki City Hall, 9 November 2012

The civil war in Syria shows no sign of abating and the divided United Nations Security Council has failed to agree on how to deal with the situation. While observers warn of the possibility that the conflict will escalate and expand, shrinking finances seem to have led to ...

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Two Seminars on "Les sciences sociales en question : grandes controverses épistémologiques et méthodologiques", Sciences Po, CEE and CERI, 5 and 12 November 2012

" Travailler sur le jugement des violences de masse" With Isabelle Delpla, University Paul Valéry Montpellier III, Alice Le Goff, University Paris Descartes, Guillaume Mouralis, ISP Nanterre and Nadège Ragaru, Sciences Po, CERI. For more information, please click here.

« Comment les campagnes électorales influencent les électeurs, et comment le mesurer ? » With the Danish researcher Rasmus Nielsen who proposes an ethnographic approach. He followed the American democratic team on the ground. He will be discussed by James Stimson, specialist of the American public opinion, by more quantitative approaches and by Céline Braconnier, who has done an ethnographic study of the declining voting turn out in the suburbs. For more information, please click here.

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Eighth Annual Conference on "Competition law in times of economic crisis: In need of adjustment?", College of Europe, 8 et 9 November 2012

The GCLC is pleased to announce its forthcoming Eighth Annual Conference. The 2012 edition will cover the following topics: Antitrust enforcement Merger control State aid policy and the real economy State aid policy in the financial sector The nexus between competition, trade and industrial policies Five working groups composed of ...

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Professional Training on EU Affairs, College of Europe 2012 Autumn Courses, 12-16 Novemeber 2012

Open for Registration Training Programmes

Seminar “EU Negotiations in Practice – Mastering the Art of Negotiations”, Bruges & Brussels, 12-16 November 2012, College of Europe The principles and practice of EU decision-making including a two-day simulation exercise. Registration is open till 22 October 2012. 10-15-20% discounts for groups, former participants, College of Europe Alumni and EU officials. Please find more information here.

Seminar “EU Project Management – From A to Z”, Bruges, 12-16 November 2012, College of Europe A one-week interactive journey along the life of EU projects, from fund raising through to tender writing, project implementation and evaluation. Registration is open till 22 October 2012. 10-15% discounts for groups, former participants and College of Europe Alumni. Please find more information here.

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International Conference on “The Neighbours of the EU’s Neighbours: Diplomatic and Geopolitical Dimensions beyond the ENP”, 15-16 November 2012, College of Europe, Bruges

The Department of EU International Relations and Diplomacy Studies at the College of Europe, Bruges campus, in cooperation with its TOTAL Chair of EU Foreign Policy, is organising an international conference to discuss the concept of the ‘neighbours of the neighbours’ of the European Union. This conference, which is financially supported by the European Commission, will deal with the diplomatic and geopolitical challenges beyond the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) in Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia. The Keynote Speech of the conference will be given by David O’Sullivan, Chief Operating Officer at the European External Action Service. The two-day conference will be divided into three sections in which speakers and discussants will look into the geopolitical dimensions beyond the ENP’s South (I) and East (II), and the diplomatic dimensions beyond the EU’s immediate neighbourhood (III). Participation is free of charge but registration is required.

Please find more information on the Conference website.

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Sciences-po upcoming seminars and conferences, November-December 2012

Seminars of the Centre d’études européennes:

« Attitudes à l’égard de l’Europe chez les nouveaux entrants », 13 November 2012, Sciences Po, CEE, Paris. With Borbala Goncz (Université Corvinus, Budapest, visiting Fellow Sciences Po, CEE). Discussion: Adrian Favell and Nuria Garcia (Sciences Po, CEE). Please find more information here.

« Legislative Activity and Gridlock in the European Union », 11 December 2012, Sciences Po, CEE, Paris With Simon Hix, London School of Economics. Discussion: Hélène Caune and Nicolas Sauger, Sciences Po, CEE Please find more information here.

Final Conference of the research project MUTORG-ADMI « L’Etat en mutations. Réformes et fusions dans l’administration française (2007-2012) », 15-16 November, Sciences Po, CEE and CSO, CERSA, LATTS, RiTME-INRA, Paris. Please find more information here as well as the programme.

International Conference “Governing the Metropolis: Powers and Territories. New Directions for Research”, 28-30 November 2012, Sciences Po, CEE, City of Paris and Laboratoire Techniques, Territoires et Sociétés (LATTS, University Paris-Est), Paris The development of metropolises has given rise to controversy in the academic debate and in society at large. The conference aims to discuss these controversies, particularly – but not exclusively – on four of them are presented below. Today, large cities face a challenge of governance, because their tissue political, social, economic and cultural are integrated into the two major trends of decentralization and globalization. Decentralization, at work since the early 1980s in Europe and in many countries around the world, has precipitated on the local political scene, local communities and populations, opening in some way by the system of actors down. Globalization – and the process of European integration – have introduced new actors such as supranational organizations (such as the EU), multinational corporations or internationally oriented and associative structures supranational, by opening up the system of actors. Please find more information here.

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Recent events hosted by TEPSA member institutes

Lecture series on U.S. elections: The 2012 US Presidential Election Campaign: Polls, Money and the Media Finish Institute of International Affairs, 12 & 23 October 2012

This seminar will examine the state of the US presidential campaign, paying particular attention to efforts by the Romney and Obama campaigns to woo America's often-frustrated voters. We will focus on the role of money in politics, and the importance of media coverage for shaping how US citizens view ...

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Conference on Germany in Europe: Franco-Czech Reflections, Institute of International Relations, Prague (IIR), 18 October 2012

In collaboration with CERI–Sciences Po, Paris the IIR arranges a one day conference with the heading – “Germany in Europe: Franco-Czech Reflections”. Venue – Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Czernin Palace), The Mirror Hall, Prague. Please find more information on the programme here.  

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China Research Days, Finnish Institute of International Affairs, 11-12 October 2012

The Global Security programme of FIIA organised China Research Days on 11-12 October. The Days consisted of a high-level seminar on topical issues, a closed session and a networking roundtable for Finland-based China researchers. The event was co-sponsored by the Joel Toivola Foundation and supported by the University of ...

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Workshop “Impact of the European External Action Service for the EU’s policies towards South East Europe”, Institute for International Relations (IMO), 5 October 2012

IMO has organized the workshop “Impact of the European External Action Service for the EU’s policies towards South East Europe”, within the LISBOAN Erasmus Academic Network. Workshop was organized on the 5th of October 2012 at the Inter-University Centre (IUC), Dubrovnik. It has focused on impacts of ...

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German-Nordic-Baltic-Forum 2012, Institut für Europäische Politik, 27 and 28 September 2012

On 27th and 28th of September 2012 the fourth German-Nordic-Baltic Forum took place. The conference was entitled “EU Responses to external challenges as seen from Germany, Poland, Nordic and Baltic countries and the EU neighbourhood”. Not only experts from the Baltic States, the Nordic States, Poland and Germany participated ...

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Discussion on the occasion of the end of the International Monitoring of Kosovo`s Independence in the context of the event series “Europaabgeordnete im Kreuzverhör”, Austrian Institute for International Affairs, oiip, 21 September 2012

Welcome Words Otmar Höll, Austrian Institute for International Affairs (oiip)

Presentation of the event series: Philipp AGATHONOS, EFB Vienna Chair: Friedhelm FRISCHENSCHLAGER, EFB Austria

Discussion with the European Parliament rapporteur for Kosovo, Ulrike LUNACEK, and the Balkans expert, Vedran DZIHIC (University of Vienna and ...

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Conference on Constitutions of the EU and Nordic States: Multilevel Constitutional Order and Democratic Challenges, University of Iceland (IIA-CSSS), 21 September 2012

On September 21st the Institute of International Affairs is hosting a Conference titled “Constitutions of the EU and Nordic States: Multilevel Constitutional Order and Democratic Challenges”, in cooperation with the Human Rights Institute at the University of Iceland and the Law Faculty of the University of Reykjavik. The ...

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Conference on "The Ukraine on the Path to European Integration", oiip, 20 September 2012

Welcome by KARL A. DUFFEK, director of the Karl-Renner-Institute & CASPAR EINEM, president of the oiip, minister (ret.) Panel 1: Ukraine’s Electoral Law Reform and the Country’s Path to Strengthening Democratic Institutions Panel 2: Ukraine on the Path to EU-Integration: From the Association Agreement to Future Membership? Venue: Karl-Renner-Institute, “Kreisky-Saal“, ...Read online.


Bilateral conference Croatia – Japan, “Dealing with the regional challenges: Europe and Asia”, Institute for International Relations (IMO), 13 September 2012

The Institute for International Relations (IMO) has organized the 6th bilateral conference with its academic partners from Japan: Universities of Tokyo, Kobe, Doshisha and Kyoto. Subject of this year's conference: “Dealing with the regional challenges: Europe and Asia” has gathered young scholars and researchers who presented their views ...

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Book Presentation and Discussion: The Worst-Kept Secret: Israel's Bargain with the Bomb, oiip, 7 September 2012

Book presentation: Prof. Avner Cohen, Senior Fellow, Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Monterey Institute of International Studies, author of The Worst-Kept Secret: Israel's Bargain with the Bomb Welcome address: Dr. Caspar Einem, former Minister of Interior, President of the oiip Commentator: Dr. Samuel R. Schubert, Head of the International ...

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"Droit institutionnel de l'Union européenne" by Jean Paul Jacqué, 7e Edition, Cours Dalloz, September 2012

This book focus on the study of institutional law of the European Union as it stands after the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty. All provisions relating to the EU, its institutions, the decision-making process, the legal order as well as the political and judicial controls are comprehensively addressed.

Students of Law Faculties and Institutes of political studies will find in this book the necessary information in order to prepare their examinations. Practitioners, lawyers and officials involved in European affairs will have a useful tool for their daily work.

To this end, the theoretical developments are illustrated with numerous references to the practices and the changes introduced by the Lisbon Treaty are analyzed in detail and their scope is studied. Read online.

'The Rule of Law in the EU: Understandings, Development and Challenges' by Leonhard den Hertog, Acta Juridica Hungarica, September 2012

This article examines the development and particular nature of the rule of law in the European Union against the background of the wider legal and political theoretical debate on the principle. It hence analyses the case law of the Court of Justice of the EU and the Treaty revisions on the rule of law. It argues that the principle has developed greatly since the first mention of it in the case law of the Court and contends that the principle has a particular focus in the EU on judicial protection in light of human rights. Nonetheless it is hard to apply the dichotomies running through the debates in legal and political theory to the development of the principle in the EU; an idiosyncratic mix of features seems to emerge. Moreover, this article also takes the case study of the external dimension of migration control to assess the current challenges to the rule of law in the EU. It thereby uncovers ways of working in the EU that are hard to reconcile with the rule of law requirements.

Please find more information on this journal article here.

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Engaging external actors: The EU in the geopolitics of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict by Marco Siddi, September 2012

For the 2012 September Edition of IEP electronic series, Marco Siddi published on "Engaging external actors: The EU in the geopolitics of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict", IEP Policy Briefs on Enlargement and Neighbourhood, No. 7/2012, Institut für Europäische Politik Berlin.

The electronic series “IEP Policy Briefs on Enlargement and Neighbourhood” is dedicated to case studies of Europeanization evaluating the power the EU has to transform its neighbouring countries to foster stability, peace and prosperity. It covers the enlargement countries as well as the eastern neighbours and the Mediterranean region. In this series, young researchers inter alia from the Kolleg-Forschergruppe (KFG) “The Transformative Power of Europe” and the Institut für Europäische Politik (IEP) present the results of their analysis in an abbreviated, user friendly form focusing on policy recommendations.

Marco Siddi is a Marie Curie Researcher, at the University of Edinburgh. His main focus is on EU-Russia relations and Russian foreign policy. Previously, he worked at the Trans European Policy Studies Association (Brussels) and at the Institute of World Economics (Budapest). He studied at the Diplomatic Academy of Vienna (MA) and the University of Oxford (BA).

Please click here to read the entire brief and feel free to contact Marco Siddi to discuss and to learn more on the future developments about this issue.

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European Parliament workshop report on Nagorno-Karabakh by Marco Siddi, July 2012

The workshop on the security situation in Nagorno-Karabakh took place at the European Parliament, in Brussels, on 20 June 2012. The workshop first introduced the Nagorno-Karabakh security situation, discussed the Countries briefing on Armenia and Azerbaijan as well as presented the EU approach and instruments: a role for the EU.

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KIMEDE publications, October 2012

Costas Melakopides (with Marina Salvaridi), The ‘Pragmatic Idealism’ of Russia’s Post-Cold War Policy towards Cyprus, The Cyprus Review, Spring 2012, Vol.24, Number 1, pp. 71-97.

Stereotypically, Moscow’s policies towards Cyprus, like those of the UK and the US, have been treated diachronically via the hegemonic analytical paradigm, especially during the Cold War, namely ‘Political Realism’. And yet, primarily since 1991 – but arguably even earlier – Moscow’s Cyprus policies have been quite distinct, being marked by such ‘idealistic’ characteristics, as sustained support for the UN Resolutions, for international law (including respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity) and international ethics (including solidarity, protection of human rights, and opposition to illegality and injustice). Therefore, whereas the ‘power-political’ reading of Washington and London’s Cyprus policies remains valid, the identical reading of Moscow’s policies needs to be transcended. Thus, the concept of ‘Pragmatic Idealism’, first introduced regarding Canadian foreign policy, is applied here to the sui generis Russia-Cyprus relationship which, after all, has been thoroughly affected by historical, political, religious, cultural, and axiological affinities and bonds.

Costas Melakopides, “Labyrinthine Triangle: Cyprus-European Union-Turkey", International and European Politics, March-June 2012, Number 25, pp. 165-177 (in Greek).

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"The Moral Enigma of an Intervention in Syria: A Just War Analysis" by Niamh Maria O’Sullivan, The Moral Enigma of an Intervention in Syria: A Just War Analysis Niamh Maria O’Sullivan, IAI Working Paper, 22 August 2012

Few issues in international politics have sparked more debate this year than the events unfolding in Syria. What began 17 months ago as peaceful marches seeking reform has brought Syria to the brink of a civil war that threatens to stop the Arab Spring dead in its tracks. As the death toll rises and accusations of crimes against humanity mount against Syrian President Bashar al-Assad and his ruling Ba’ath Party, many are calling for an armed intervention to put an end to the Assad regime’s widespread human rights abuses. Finding the right way forward for Syria, however, is proving elusive and so we turn to philosophy and, in particular, to Just War theory for guidance. Though often criticized as a soft or unrealistic approach to foreign policy, principles like just cause and proportionality guide our way through the moral enigma that has confounded the international community since the uprising began. The answers are far from easy. As the battle for Syria rages on, the most ethical, and difficult, thing to do might just be to stay out.

Please read the entire working paper here.

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Towards an Irish Foreign Policy for Britain by Daithi O’Ceallaigh and James Kilcourse, IIEA, August 2012

Towards an Irish Foreign Policy for Britain by Daithi O’Ceallaigh and James Kilcourse, IIEA, August 2012

The success of Queen Elizabeth’s visit to Ireland in May 2011 underlines the huge improvement in the relationship between Ireland and the United Kingdom. This relationship changed as a result of the ties that developed between London and Dublin as they together sought to resolve the conflict in Northern Ireland. The improvement was also greatly facilitated by their common membership of the European Communities, and then the European Union, to which they acceded in 1973.

There is now a possibility, some would say a probability, that the UK will lessen its ties with the European Union, or may even withdraw from it altogether. The euro crisis has led to a deepening of the relationships between the members of the Eurozone, who are heading towards a banking union to be followed by elements of a financial and, perhaps, a political union. Simply put, it looks as if the UK will move further away from Brussels while Ireland will move closer.

The implications for Irish foreign policy of this divergence between London and Dublin are examined in this paper. First, the paper assesses the current state of bilateral relations between Britain and Ireland, as exemplified by the Taoiseach and Prime Minister’s Joint Statement at Downing Street on 12 March 2012. It then examines the UK’s position on Europe and how its place within the EU may change over the coming years. The intensity in the UK of the debate about its membership of the EU suggests that it will follow one of two paths: repatriating key competences from Brussels or withdrawing completely from the EU. The paper analyses what Ireland’s options might be in each of these cases in light of the Irish Government’s stated aim of remaining a full and active member of the EU.

Please click here to read the entire publication.

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"The Future of the European Convention on Human Rights after the Brighton Conference" by Antonio Bultrini, IAI Working Papers, 23 September 2012

It is widely recognized that the European Convention on Human Rights has led to the most advanced human rights protection system to date - and represents an important benchmark for several other international bodies. The individual right of application to the European Court, which unlike other human rights treaties is compulsory for State parties, is a unique feature and pillar of the system. However, the European Court is presently overwhelmed by an abnormal caseload: about 150,000 applications are currently pending in Strasbourg. Recent reforms have increased the Court’s efficiency. Yet the British Government has just tried to promote a new reform of the system. This attempt was not entirely disinterested and has led to an unprecedented mobilization by international civil society. The British move has nonetheless triggered a debate on the real challenges facing the European system.

Please read the entire working paper here.

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Developments in and Obstacles to the US Pivot to Asia: What Alternatives for Europe? by Alessandro Riccardo Ungaro, IAI Working Papers, 24 September 2012

The US strategic guidance released in January 2012 represents a hallmark of US President Barack Obama’s foreign policy and forms integral part of the so-called “Pivot to Asia”. Rather than a radical departure from the past, the strategic guidance represents an evolution of US foreign policy towards the region, envisaging the reallocation of American military assets from Europe to the Asia-Pacific. Challenges, tensions and frictions between the US and regional actors may however hamper the implementation of the policy and require a delicate balancing act in which China will play a key role. On the European side, the US shift should be seen as an opportunity for the EU to review its policy priorities and elaborate its own strategy towards Asia.

Please read the entire working paper here. Read online.


Briefing Note on the ‘Culture Strand of the Creative Europe Programme 2014-2020’, Institute for International Relations (IMO), September 2012

Note was been requested by the European Parliament’s Committee on Culture and Education and was done by the researchers from the Institute for International Relations – IMO: Colin Mercer, Nina Obuljen, Jaka Primorac and Aleksandra Uzelac. The publication was issued in September 2012 and it has provided analytical, conceptual, and policy commentary on the proposed Culture Strand of the Creative Europe Programme. Briefing Note takes into account all available commentary on this Programme from both official sources and a wide range of stakeholders, including published results of consultation and follow up discussions with key actors in the field by IMO research team. The focus is on both the plausibility and cogency of the overall policy architecture and on key points of acknowledged concern.

The Note is available at the European Parliament studies page.

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"The Informal Europeanization of EU Member State Immigration Policies" by Silvia Cavasola, IAI Working Paper, 25 September 2012

For years the EU has been fostering a common policy to integrate immigrants. Yet, whether its efforts have progressively created something like a homogeneous European model of integration remains an open question. An analysis of the approach to immigrant integration in the EU member states that receive the largest immigration flows, as well as of EU initiatives to promote greater policy harmonization among its member states, shows that partial convergence in national integration strategies is linked more to interstate emulation and parallel path development than to proactive EU legislation on the matter. This trend can be referred to as a process of “informal Europeanization”.

Please read the entire working paper here.

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Sciences-Po Latest Publications, October 2012

Daniel, Brugidou, Mathieu, Halpern, Charlotte, Lascoumes, Pierre, (dir.), Le Grenelle de l'environnement. Acteurs, dicours, effets, Paris, Armand Colin, October 2012

Laïdi, Zaki, Le monde selon Obama : La politique étrangère des Etats-Unis, Paris, Flammarion, September 2012

Laïdi, Zaki, Limited Achievements: Obama's Foreign Policy, Palgrave MacMillan, Août 2012

Ratka, Edmund and Spaiser, Olga A. (dir), Understanding European Neighbourhood Policies. Concepts, Actors, Perception, Nomos Edition, July 2012

Kahn Sylvain, La place de la construction européenne dans la conquête puis la conservation du pouvoir par les socialistes français, 1966-1984, Les cahiers européens de Sciences Po n° 01/2012, July 2012

All the new publications of the CEE team available here.

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FIIA Concluding projects, October 2012

The final report of the “Finnish Perspectives to the European Security Market” research project will be published on 15 October. The report analyses changes in the European defence and security market. The project was led by FIIA, implemented as a joint project with the National Defence University and the Finland Futures Research Centre and funded by the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (TEKES).

FIIA and the Polish Institute of International Affairs (PISM) have published a joint report “Still Awake: The Beginnings of Arab Democratic Change”. The report, edited by FIIA Researcher Timo Behr and PISM researcher Patrycja Sasnal, focuses on the political transition taking place in Yemen, Syria, Libya, Morocco and Egypt.

As the Arab world moves from the dismantling of autocratic regimes to the creation of new systems of governance, various models of transition have emerged. Post-revolutionary political systems are likely to mirror the complex political bargains that have characterized these transition processes. This suggests that electoral politics will remain messy and that unresolved conflicts will be frozen in the emerging political orders. However, with some of these transitional bargains now being contested, there is potential for a further deepening of democratic change; but also a real risk that the region will see a re-emergence of political conflict.

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FIIA latest publications, October 2012

The Finnish Journal of Foreign Affairs The latest issue of the Finnish Journal of Foreign Affairs (Ulkopolitiikka-lehti) was published in mid-September. The issue takes a critical look at the (lack of) leadership in today’s world politics, analyses whether the US is capable of maintaining its leading role in the world amid deep internal divisions, and peeks behind the scenes of the great Chinese leadership game. The journal also introduces to its readers the new head of the Russian green opposition, Evgenia Chirikova, and tells about the book that President Tarja Halonen will not forget (The Kite Runner).

FIIA Briefing Papers 111-115 Jyrki Kallio, Kiinan meri vai kaikkien meri? Etelä-Kiinan meren sopassa on liikaa mausteita

Touko Piiparinen, Säilyykö suojeluvastuu? YK:n turvallisuusneuvoston rooli inhimillisen turvallisuuden puolustajana

Tanja Tamminen, Towards efficient early action: The EU needs a regional focus and proactive tools to prevent and manage conflicts The Lisbon Treaty and the European External Action Service provide the EU with an excellent framework for comprehensive and effective crisis prevention and crisis management work. They just need to be utilised to the full. The security and development nexus can only be enhanced through long-term perspectives. Rather than renewing its general security strategy, the EU’s focus should be on preparing tailor-made and institutionally endorsed regional approaches and strategies, where the broad objectives would be operationalized into more concrete goals. In conflict-prone regions, goal-setting should be carried out through full participation with the beneficiary countries and their civil societies. Dialogue and mediation are perfect tools for achieving reconciliation and stability, and need to be utilized at every stage of comprehensive crisis management and at different levels of society. Comprehensive EU activities in the field of crisis prevention and crisis management should be duly evaluated, as only by looking at the bigger picture can lessons truly be learned and endorsed.

Charly Salonius-Pasternak, Not just another arms deal: The security policy implications of the United States selling advanced missiles to Finland Finland's decision to acquire advanced semi-stealthy Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missiles (JASSM) from the United States is much more than an arms deal – it has significant political and regional military implications. Finland is only the second country to be approved for JASSM. No NATO country has ever received such approval. This suggests something about the closeness of the relationship between the United States and Finland, as well as something about how the United States sees European and regional defence arrangements. In the web of multilateral, multinational and bilateral relationships that Finland is weaving to enhance its security, the US relationship is a key cable. The JASSM acquisition significantly changes Finland's ability to disrupt enemy activities, both within Finland and beyond its borders. Despite being a conventional weapon, it will serve as a deterrent. Finnish decision-makers have a responsibility to understand both the implications of the new capabilities, and to ensure that the continued development of the Finnish Defence Forces is not inhibited due to misunderstandings of what a modern defence requires and consists of.

Anaïs Marin, The electoral trap: Why the EU should think beyond Belarus’s parliamentary election

One should not expect the 23 September election to comply with democratic standards. The current legislation in Belarus does not guarantee a free and fair process. The institutional setting prevents a transparent vote count and the election of opposition candidates. Yet, in sending a full-fledged observation mission to Belarus, the OSCE again appears to be giving official Minsk the benefit of the doubt. Breaking the vicious circle of external regime legitimation would require consistency and restraint in giving this periodic electoral farce any credence whatsoever. Imitating procedural democracy brings regime consolidation for Lukashenka: enticing the opposition forces – and their Western supporters for that matter – into the electoral trap is a pre-emptive scheme to disqualify them. Decapitated, divided, distrusted, the opposition is incapable of carrying out regime change. The regime's repressive build-up also dissuades Belarusians from mobilising to contest the predictable fraud – for now. They are nonetheless expressing increasing demands for independent election monitoring. In view of the 2015 presidential elections, the EU should invest more in the capacity-building and training of civil society actors, notably domestic election observers. Turning voters into reliable rule of law watchdogs could raise awareness in, and demand for democracy in Belarus.

FIIA Comments Charly Salonius-Pasternak, Obama headed for victory: Four reasons why Romney is unlikely to re-bend the arc of history The first presidential debate between Barack Obama and Mitt Romney did not dramatically change the underlying trends as the last month of campaigning gets underway. For a number of reasons, voters are still likely to award President Obama a second term.

Jyrki Kallio, Bart Gaens & Mikael Mattlin, Between a rock and a hard place: Senkaku islands dispute triggers Chinese nationalist backlash With anti-Japanese demonstrations in numerous Chinese cities, some media have already been pondering the possibility of war breaking out between the two countries. China cannot afford to let nationalism get out of hand, as it could easily turn into voices of resistance against the government.

Arkady Moshes, “Pacific Russia” is still a dream: An APEC summit alone will not make the country a top player in the region The APEC summit in Vladivostok is designed to emphasize just how much today's Russia aspires to become a recognized Pacific power. But the context in which the summit will be held only serves to highlight the challenges to which Russia is and will be exposed both generally and specifically.

All FIIA publications can be downloaded from the Institute’s website.

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Integration, Special issue on Europe’s value, the Institut für Europäische Politik e.V. (IEP), October 2012

New publication: “Integration” Special issue on Europe’s value by the Institut für Europäische Politik e.V. (IEP).

Alternatives to the project of European integration are increasingly discussed. Meanwhile citizens like experts and politicians forget about the advantages of the European project, because its success is taken for granted. The quarterly journal "integration" takes that as a reason to publish a special issue on Europe’s value. Following Federal Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle’s plea to make the case for Europe anew, widely recognized experts discuss different dimensions of Europe’s value and question some simple cost-benefit-calculations. Another article deals with the development of European Studies, while the AEI reports from two conferences.

For more information visit IEP website

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Fig Leaf or a New Fiscal Era? On the Potential Impact of the European Fiscal Compact, Issue 3/2012 of ‘integration’, Institut für Europäische Politik, October 2012

Fig Leaf or a New Fiscal Era? On the Potential Impact of the European Fiscal Compact by Friedrich Heinemann, Marc-Daniel Moessinger and Steffen Osterloh, Issue 3/2012 of ‘integration’, Institut für Europäische Politik, October 2012

In the current issue of ‘integration’, Friedrich Heinemann, Marc-Daniel Moessinger and Steffen Osterloh ask whether the reform of the Fiscal Compact, comprising both the introduction of strong numerical fiscal rules at national level and a modification of the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP), marks a new era of fiscal governance in the European Union or is just a fig leaf for the lacking fiscal union. Manuel Sarrazin and Sven-Christian Kindler examine the ‘Union method’ as a new mode of governance in the European Union concerning the Euro crisis and the political measures to solve it. They, thereby, compare it with the Community method.

Abstracts of these and the other articles are available here.

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OIIP Latest Publications, October 2012

oiip Policy Papers

"Wissen und Forschen in einer globalisierten Welt" by Ruth Müller, Policy Paper 9/12, September 2012

Science and Technology have become increasingly important both for the everyday lives of people and within concurrent global economic and political developments. This significance is reflected in an increasing demand for strategically coordinated and analytically supported science and technology policy. The oiip has created a research focus that addresses these questions.

"Interdependenzen: Wie die Dynamiken des Syrienkonfliktes den Demokratisierungsprozess in der Türkei gefährden? by Cengiz Günay, Policy Paper 10/12, October 2012

The struggle for Syria has implications for the region and Turkey. Together with other neighboring countries, Turkey has been exposed to the dynamics emanating from the Syrian crisis. The Turkish government’s support for the Syrian rebels has induced shifts in Turkey’s foreign as well as domestic politics. In the face of the challenges posed by the developments in Syria, Turkey falls back to old reflexes. Increasing militarism, nationalism and conservatism threaten the country’s democratization and reform process.

Die Obama-Jahre: „A Season for Nuclear Disarmament”?, by Hakan Akbulut, Policy Paper 8/12, August 2012

US President Barack Obama won many hearts and minds with the speech he delivered in Prague on April 5, 2009. In this address, he outlined his vision of a world free of nuclear weapons and listed a number of steps and measures his Administration would take towards making that vision a reality. On the eve of the conclusion of a START I follow-on treaty with Russia, even the former IAEA Director General, Hans Blix, reasoned in an editorial that thanks to Obama’s efforts, the season for disarmament might have finally arrived. With more than three years having passed since Obama’s Prague speech, this paper explores whether Obama has delivered on his promises and truly ushered in a „season for disarmament“.

oiip Working Papers

Schneller, höher, stärker … im globalen Vergleich: Eine empirische Analyse der Olympischen Spiele 2010/2012 by Jan Pospisil, oiip Working Papers 66, September 2012

 Cyberspace and Governance—A Primer by Alexander Klimburg and Philipp Mirtl,oiip Working Papers 65, September 2012

This working paper has a threefold purpose: first, it proposes a better understanding of the difference between the Internet (interconnecting computers) and the World Wide Web (managing information). Against this background, a four-layer model of cyberspace is presented including a physical, logical, informational, and social layer. Second, the paper splits the national cybersecurity debate in five distinct subject areas, or mandates. These include Military Cyberactivities, Counter-Cybercrime, Intelligence and Counter-Intelligence, Critical Infrastructure Protection and National Crisis Management, and Cyberdiplomacy and Internet Governance, each of which is typically covered by a distinct government department. Third, as one of the most understated and least understood mandates on this list, Internet Governance is described at more length in the final section.

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