The first Policy Brief for the Jean Monnet Chair ‘An Evolving EU Engaging a Changing Mediterranean Region’ has been issued online. The Policy Brief, entitled ‘What’s the use of a transatlantic free trade area?’ has been contributed by Dr Susanna Thede, Senior Lecturer at the Institute for European Studies. It is available on the Jean Monnet Chair website. The Jean Monnet Chair website also contains the Chair’s Occasional Papers.
The first Policy Brief for the Jean Monnet Chair, University of Malta
TEPSA and IAI won a EP’s tender on “Space, Sovereignty and European Security: Building European capabilities in an advanced institutional framework”!
Having won the tender, on 21 March 2013 TEPSA signed a contract with the European Parliament on the external study and workshop on “Space, Sovereignty and European Security: Building European capabilities in an advanced institutional framework“. The study will be delievered by an excellent team of experienced researchers from the Instituto Affari Internazionali (IAI): Stefano Silvestri, Vincenzo Camporini, Michele Nones, Jean-Pierre Darnis, Anna Clementina Veclani and Nicolo Sartori. The study will be published in summer 2013 and available on TEPSA website.
Spring 2013 Publications and Blog entries of Elcano Royal Institute in Madrid
William Chislett Cyprus’s crisis: Aphrodite to the rescue?, Expert Comment 27/2013, Elcano Royal Institute, 1 April 2013
The future of bankrupt Cyprus and perhaps of the EU’s vast energy needs lies in the offshore gas field named after the ancient Greek goddess Aphrodite who, according to legend, was born on the tiny island nation.
César de Prado, Towards stronger EU-Asia relation, EGS 3/2013 – 1/4/2013, Elcano Royal Institute.
The EU and its member states are designing differing strategies to engage with Asia and its various regional processes that could be made to complement each other if they were to be developed from a common outlook.
Alicia Sorroza, European Global Strategy Project: opinions and ideas on the EU’s future as a global actor, Elcano Blog, 4 April, 2013
Some weeks ago, the Elcano Royal Institute held a Seminar on the European Global Strategy Project. For the occasion, the Institute brought together several experts on European foreign affairs, including Javier Solana, the EU’s former High Representative for CFSP and author of the European Security Strategy, who actively supports this new initiative.
Carmen González, Roderick Parkes, Alicia Sorroza and Andreas Ette, The EU performance in the global competition for highly-skilled migrants, TGAE-Elcano 4/2013 – 26/3/2013
It is still impossible to evaluate the Blue Card’s effect but the changes that have taken place in the European migratory framework since its approval in 2009 should now allow the re-drafting of the Directive to offer a more attractive channel to qualified immigrants.
Daniela Schwarzer, Federico Steinberg and Diego Valiante, Towards a common external representation for the eurozone?, TGAE-Elcano 3/2013 – 26/3/2013
Since the introduction of the euro in 1999, the external representation of the eurozone has been incrementally developed, but no formal amendments have been made. This Policy Paper discusses the case for a consolidated representation of the eurozone in international economic fora, analyses the obstacles to achieving it, and puts forward proposals to solve some of the existing obstacles.
Haizam Amirah-Fernández and Timo Behr, The missing spring in the EU’s Mediterranean policies, TGAE-Elcano 1/2013 – 22/3/2013
The fall of the wall of fear in Arab societies represents a major challenge, of unknown proportions for Europe, but also an unprecedented opportunity for building a new regional stability based on good governance, inclusive development and mutually beneficial exchanges.
Gonzalo Escribano, Promoting low-carbon energies in Mediterranean partner countries, TGAE-Elcano 2/2013 – 25/3/2013
Renewable energies remain marginal in the European neighbourhood, and their contribution to economic and human development is still largely unexplored.
William Chislett , Turkey: outlawed Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) chief calls for ceasefire in ‘historic’ move, Elcano Expert Comment, 25/2013 – 22/3/2013, Elcano Royal Institute
Abdullah Ocalan, imprisoned since 1999, called for a truce to a conflict of almost 30 years in which more than 35,000 people have died in a struggle for the establishment of an ethnic Kurdish homeland in the south-east of Turkey.
Luis Simón, No might, no right: Europeans must re-discover military power, EGS 2/2013 – 19/3/2013, Elcano Royal Institute
Unless Europeans acknowledge the importance of military force and the ability to project power on a global scale, any discussions on strategy or foreign policy will be largely futile.
Mario Kölling and Cristina Serrano Leal, The Multiannual Financial Framework 2014-20 from a Spanish Perspective: Net Beneficiary or Successful Balancing Act?, ARI 7/2013 – 1/3/2013, Elcano Royal Institute.
The MFF 2014-20 has finally been agreed upon. Nevertheless, it is ‘perhaps nobody’s perfect budget but there’s a lot in it for everybody’.
Issue 1/2013 of “Integration” published, Institut für Europäische Politik
The issue 1/2013 of the quarterly integration, published by IEP in March 2013, draws attention to the realigned French European policy under François Hollande. Another article focuses on the ongoing crisis management in the EU, looking at forms of differentiated integration in particular. The current legislative procedure concerning European cohesion policy (2014-2020) represents a further key objective in the issue. Moreover, the fiscal federalism in Germany and the USA is compared to the EU. A review deals with the analysis of the ENP. The AEI reports on two conferences about EU Arctic policy and on a Europe being solidly united. See the publication here.
Spring 2013 podcasts and publications from Sciences Po, CEE, Paris
Podcast of the European Social Observary Conference -OSE- The Social Investment Package: Just Hype or the Next Big Thing?, 11 March 2013, with Lieve Fransen, Director Social Policies and Europe 2020, European Commission and Bruno Palier, Research Director CNRS at Sciences Po, CEE. Please find more information here.
Podcast of the « Conférence de dissensus sur la récidive ; Exercices critiques sur une production de vérite », 14 February 2013, « Les élites peuvent-elles être coupables, la preuve par la récidive, une démonstration de Edwin Sutherland » with Pierre Lascoumes, Research Director CNRS at Sciences Po, CEE. Please find more information here.
Chopin, Olivier, Hoeffler, Catherine, Irondelle, Bastien, Joana, Jean, Olsson, Christian, Rozenberg, Olivier, Etudes de l’IRSEM, Evolution du contrôle parlementaire des forces armées en Europe, Paris, IRSEM, 2012-22, March 2013. Please find more information here.
Rozenberg, Olivier, Wessels, Wolfgang, (dir.), Kreilinger, Valentin, Hefftler, Claudia et al. Democratic Control in the Member States of the European Council and the Euro zone summits, Brussels, European Parliament, January 2013. Please find more information here.
Boullier, Dominique et Crepel, Maxime avec la collaboration de Lohard, Audrey et Jardin, Antoin, Etude Pratiques de lecture et d’achat de livres numériques, Etude réalisée pour le MOTif, February 2013, Please find more information here.
Tiberj, Vincent, Values and the Votes from Mitterrand to Hollande, Parliamentary Affairs, vol 66, n° 1, p. 69-86, January 2013. Please find more information here.
All press review are available here.
Policy brief “Shifting the Climate Finance Paradigm: Nine Key Challenges for Developed Countries” by Joseph Curtin, IIEA, Dublin
Joseph Curtin, Shifting the Climate Finance Paradigm: Nine Key Challenges for Developed Countries, IIEA, 13 March 2013. See more information here.
In 2009, developed countries commited to part-funding the cost of adapting to the impacts of climate change and of low carbon development in developing countries. From 2010 to 2012, fast start finance began to flow from developed country exhequers. However, the climate finance paradigm is now shifting. A transition from loans and grants provided from scarce exchequer resources to innovative instruments for leveraging private capital and mitigating investment risk is required in the coming period. But what are the implications for developed countries? This policy brief explores the policy context defining the current climate finance debate; examines the extent to which commitments have been met; and identifies nine key challenges for developed countries as they enter the new climate finance paradigm, drawing on the lessons of the fast start finance period.
This is the second in a series of Environment Nexus policy briefs by leading experts in the fields of agriculture, energy, climate change and water. They form part of the Environment Nexus project, which is co-financed by the European Parliament.
Nuno Severiano Teixeira and António Costa Pinto (eds), The Europeanization of Portuguese Democracy, IPRI-UNL
Abstract: Driven primarily by political concerns to secure democracy, Portugal´s accession to the EU in 1986 also served as a catalyst for dynamic economic development following a complex process of democratization and the decolonization of Europe´s last empire. This book analyses how the European Union has helped shape the political process in Portugal on key institutions, elites, and its citizen´s attitudes. Please find the book here.
Spring 2013 Publications from the Finnish Institute of International Affairs
Institute Researchers Timo Behr, Jyrki Kallio, Mika Aaltola, Charly Salonius-Pasternak and Coordinator Maija Salonen recently co-authored a European Parliament report ‘The maritime dimension of CSDP: Geostrategic maritime challenges and their implications for the European Union’.
FIIA Researcher Kristi Raik and the European Policy Centre’s Rosa Balfour have co-edited a publication ‘The European External Action Service and National Diplomacies’ which was published in the EPC Issue Paper series.
The Finnish Journal of Foreign Affairs
The latest issue of the Finnish Journal of Foreign Affairs (Ulkopolitiikka-lehti) came out in early March. This issue focuses on the search for new ideas regarding global democracy as well as ways to enhance the democratic legitimacy of the European Union in crisis. In addition, the issue takes a look at how the Kurds are about to re-draw some of the boundaries in the Middle East, and tries to help the Nordic countries reclaim their lost glory.
All FIIA publications can be downloaded from the Institute’s website.
FIIA Briefing Papers
Abstract: The shale gas boom, the recent and rapid commercialization of large-scale shale gas production, has made the US self-sufficient in natural gas and has considerable export potential. Gas is set to become the biggest fuel in the US energy mix and has helped the US to curb its greenhouse gas emissions. Cheap gas is also reinforcing the trend of rising industry investment in the US. The impacts of the US shale gas boom are already being felt in Europe and Asia, for example via cheaper coal. The ‘coal renaissance’ in Europe can still be avoided either by a carbon price or other forms of regulation. Restoring the ability of the European Emissions Trading System to guide investments is the best solution, and can be done simply by setting an adequate emissions cap for the post-2020 period. Globally, the rise of unconventional fossil energy sources means that the energy markets of the coming decades will move towards a more competitive and fragmented order, in which many energy importing countries also utilize significant domestic resources, and are able to balance their imports with regional exporters and the major global players. These developments point to a weakening Russian grip on the European gas market, and problems for Russian export revenues in general. Other states lag far behind the US in shale gas technology, but will try to replicate the US experiment, while Russia will strive to prevent this from happening in its neighbourhood.
Harri Mikkola, Juha Anteroinen & Ville Lauttamäki: The changing European defence market: Will the new European defence market legislation be a game-changer for Finland?
Abstract: The European defence industrial base is transforming. The changes in the European defence market legislation, the decrease in defence materiel demand and changing defence requirements are redefining the industry in a way that has not been seen in decades. The new European legislation in particular poses serious challenges for the Finnish defence industry, including the national market opening and the diminishing possibility for offset arrangements. It is likely that the major European states are trying to protect their own defence industrial base. The future of the Finnish defence industry will be determined by whether the European market opens up in the first place, in part or in its entirety. There is no going back to the time preceding the new legislation. It is crucial for the Finnish defence industry to find and utilize new market opportunities. Networking with the European system integrators and sub-contracting chains will be of paramount importance.
Abstract: Deeply rooted Euroscepticism within some quarters of the British Conservative Party was initially thought to be balanced by the formation of a coalition government with the pro-European Liberal Democrats.
These wishes soon proved to be premature and the British government led by the Conservatives has emerged as a very difficult partner in many fields of EU policy. Prime Minister David Cameron’s weakened support, the European economic crisis and EMU reforms have geared the British European policy towards an increasing awkwardness vis-à-vis its key European partners and prompted a debate on the re-negotiation of Britain’s relationship with the EU. Relatedly, Britain’s position in the EU has weakened significantly. Mr Cameron’s recent speech attempts to re-establish some degree of British authority in the EU, and in the event that he fails, to further distance Britain from the EU. It is uncertain whether the current trend will prevail after the next British general election, slated to be held in May 2015 at the latest.
Katri Pynnöniemi: Russia’s defence reform: Assessing the real ‘Serdyukov heritage’
Abstract: The Russian Armed Forces are undergoing a long and expensive reform, which aims at preparing the country to new security threats. The reforms were initiated during the term of the former minister of defence, Anatoly Serdyukov. His dismissal in November 2012 initiated a debate on the future of the reforms. As of yet, the changes made by the new minister of defence Sergei Shoigu are corrections to the existing plan, and not an overall revision of its contours. The most pronounced difference is a shift in favour of domestic military industry.In its current condition, Russia’s defence industry is not able to absorb the major increase in military spending in an efficient manner. From the technological and managerial perspectives, most of the military-industrial enterprises function far below the international average.
All things bright and beautiful are being promised to the Chinese living under the new party leadership. But is what is good for China also good for the world? The Chinese rhetoric has a victim mentality flavour, and carries the risk that compensating for one’s past inferiority may lead to extreme actions today.
Due to the economic crisis and changes in the international system, European foreign services are facing budget cuts and need to re-focus their functions. They should utilize the potential for burden-sharing with the European External Action Service (EEAS) and its network of 141 EU Delegations.
Arkady Moshes: Saving Putin’s system: Survival tactics become the strategy
Vladimir Putin’s third term as Russia’s president allows us to draw parallels with the USSR under the leadership of Yuri Andropov 30 years ago. Political rights are being suppressed, yet Putin has to tread carefully so as not to step on the toes of the elites. Any ideas of modernizing Russia seem to have been abandoned.
The tornado-like debate in Sweden about the country’s armed forces and defence policy has led to the disintegration of the very cornerstones of Swedish defence policy. Finland should prepare for the possibility of Sweden making rapid changes to its security policy.
Japan has failed to achieve progress in resolving its territorial disputes. The historical legacy and the role of the US, local perceptions of Japan’s wartime past, and the interrelated and contingent nature of the disputes all serve to compound the problem.
The global “war on drugs” has reached a turning point. The EU should seize the opportunity to promote an alternative approach to global drug control. Harm reduction policies need to be extended, while not expecting legalization to solve everything.
The UN responds to the global crisis with a radical proposal. Instead of a traditional donor-recipient approach, it focuses on policy coherence and calls for governments and the private sector to enable global reform. In the absence of strong political commitment, the question remains as to what extent it will succeed.
Special issue of “Perspectives”, Institute of International Relations in Prague
This special issue includes contributions on this topic from leading scholars from China, India, Brazil, Russia, Japan and Turkey. These countries were chosen in order to provide a variety of perspectives and reflect inherent European interests.
More information and editorial from professors of the University of Oxford, Hartmut Mayer and Jan Zielonka, you can read on the website http://www.perspectives.cz!
Blog entries of LIIA’s experts
Deputy Director of the LIIA Kārlis Bukovskis in his blog entry endeavors to answer questions pertaining to David Cameron’s speech on the British future in the EU: Is David Cameron “the next Charles de Gaulle”? Will he push the EU to the edge of a new “Empty Chair Crisis”?
LIIA Associate Fellow Ilvija Bruģe in her blog entry “About the flags” analyzes ongoing tensions between the Irish (catholic and republican) and the British (protestant and loyalist) in Northern Ireland.
LIIA Fellow Raimonds Rublovskis has made a number of contributions pertaining to the defense industry, institutional challenges and wider security issues with his four blog entries: NATO Challenges in Post-Chicago Security Environment, Institutional Challenges of Latvian National Armed Forces, Future Challenges for European Members of NATO and Impact on the Transatlantic Link in the post-Chicago Security Environment, Challenges for Russia in Current Global Security Environment. Implications for the Baltic States.
LIIA Associate Fellow Tjaco Van den Hout in his blog entry – An Example Worthy of Consideration – provides an assessment of the territorial and maritime dispute between Croatia and Slovenia. In his second analysis, Tjaco Van den Hout argues that without freedom of expression the other basic human rights are more easily violated and impunity reigns.
LIIA Fellow Diāna Potjomkina over the last month has continued to provide analysis on various EU topics. In her first blog entry Diāna evaluates negotiations on the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP). In her second blog entry she outlines the provisional outcomes of the EU multiannual budget negotiations for Latvia – a publication originally prepared for the Russian Academy of Sciences’ Bulletin on European and CIS Studies. EU Budget 2014 – 2020: Views from across Europe after 7-8 February 2013.
LIIA Associate Fellow Imants Liegis, who has taken up his duties as Latvia’s Ambassador to Hungary in September 2012 shared his reflections on the Visegrad Cooperation.
The LIIA’s Associate Fellow Māris Andžāns has evaluated the first cybersecurity strategy of the EU – “Cybersecurity Strategy of the European Union: An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace” – and its implications for Latvia. Please find the blog entry here.
Publications of the Austrian Institute for International Affairs (oiip), February 2013
Heinz Gärtner, Der amerikanische Präsident und die neue Welt, 11/2012, ISBN 9783643504531.
Cengiz Günay, Geschichte der Türkei: Von den Anfängen der Moderne bis heute, 11/2012, ISBN 9783825233013
Heinz Gärtner, Hakan Akbulut, Alexander Klimburg, Philipp Mirtl, Jan Pospisil, Cengiz Günay, John Bunzl, Vedran Dzihic, Babett Rampke , ADD ON. 2012, 12/2012, ISBN 978-370890985112
Alexander Klimburg (ed.), National Cyber Security Framework Manual, 07/2012,
What, exactly, is “national cyber security”? The rise of cyberspace as a field of human endeavour is probably nothing less than one of the most significant developments in world history. Cyberspace already directly impacts every facet of human existence including economic, social, cultural and political developments.
The “National Cyber Security Framework Manual” provides detailed background information and in-depth theoretical frameworks to help the reader understand the different facets of national cyber security, according to different levels of public policy information. The four levels of government – political, strategic, operational and tactical/technical – each have their own perspectives on national cyber security, and each is addressed in individual sections within the Manual. Additionally, the Manual gives examples of relevant institutions in national cyber security, from top-level policy coordination bodies down to cyber crisis management structures and similar institutions.
Policy Paper 7/12 by Vedran Dzihic, Ein Plädoyer für die EU-Erweiterung: Warum es zum europäischen Erweiterungsprojekt am Westbalkan keine Alternative gibt, December 2012.
IMO Ocassional Papers, February 2013
The Second IMO Occassional Paper in 2012 examines impacts of the global economic crisis on the policy making process among the Western Balkan countries. Author Will Bartlett argues that there is a substantial knowledge gap regarding the application and sustainability of policy options, which can only be filled through the well-designed research studies based on research questions that are relevant for the policy makers. In this context, the evidence-based policy making (EBPM) techniques have a valuable role to play in improving the policy process. This paper outlines both ex-ante and ex-post techniques of the EBPM, pointing out specific nature of the policy process in transition countries and the difficulties of formulating rational policy during periods of rapid structural change.
Policy paper is available at here.
IIEA’s paper “Untying the Knot? Ireland, the UK and the EU”, February 2013
Dáithí O’Ceallaigh and James Kilcourse, Untying the Knot? Ireland, the UK and the EU, Institute of International and European Affairs (IIEA), Dublin, February 2013
Ireland must stay close to both the UK and Europe. This is the crux of the challenge facing Ireland as the UK attempts to renegotiate its position in the European Union. The relationship between Ireland and the UK has never been better, but David Cameron’s January 2013 speech on Europe heralds a long period of uncertainty for Ireland and the EU. The uncertainty surrounding the UK’s place in Europe is further intensified by the Scottish vote on independence in 2014, which could see an independent Scotland applying to join the EU, and the rest of the UK on its way to the exit. Given that it stands to be one of the biggest losers from a UK withdrawal, it is crucial that Ireland adopts a far-sighted and well-balanced strategy for dealing with the possible implications.
This paper outlines Ireland’s relationship with the UK and the EU in the context of the UK’s changing attitude to Europe. It presents a range of options and assesses how best Ireland can fashion its long-term strategic interests under a number of scenarios. It is based on the deliberations of the IIEA UK Group, a working group which has been active since the foundation of the IIEA in 1991. The process that has given rise to the current paper began in March 2012. Since then, members of the Group have met with a number of British and European politicians, journalists, officials and academics, both in London and in Dublin.
Newest Publications from Royal Insitute Elcano, February 2013
Fernando Reinares y Carola García-Calvo, El norte de Mali como foco de amenaza terrorista para España: ¿nuestro patio trasero o simplemente nuestro patio?, Analysis of the Elcano Royal Institute, 22 January 2013
William Chislett, Turkey’s Economy Slows Down: Will this Affect Spain’s Burgeoning Trade and Investment?. Analysis of the Elcano Royal Institute, 16 January 2013
Iliana Olivié y Aitor Pérez, Development Community vs. Financial Industry: Clash of Civilisations or Strategic Partnership? Analysis of the Elcano Royal Institute, 16 January 2013
Martín Ortega Carcelén, Hacia una Estrategia Global Europea en 2013. Analysis of the Elcano Royal Institute, 31 December 2012
Charles Powell The pain in Spain: political, social and foreign policy implications of the European economic crisis. Analysis of the Elcano Royal Institute, 31 December 2012
Ignacio Molina y Alicia Sorroza, El impacto del Servicio Europeo de Acción Exterior en la diplomacia española. Analysis of the Elcano Royal Institute, 21 December 2012
Pablo Bustelo, Nadando contracorriente: “Abenomics” en Japón, Expert Comment Elcano Royal Institute, 16 January, 2013
Gonzalo Escribano, Argelia y España, potencial de alto nivel, Expert Comment Elcano Royal Institute, 14 January, 2013
Félix Arteaga, España, Mali y la operación Serval de Francia: ¿qué hacer y qué no? ¿Solos o en compañía de otros?. Expert Comment Elcano Royal Institute, 14 January, 2013
Carmen González Enríquez, El futuro de la población española. Expert Comment Elcano Royal Institute, 10 January, 2013
Federico Steinberg, El FMI admite el error y la duda, Expert Comment Elcano Royal Institute, 8 January, 2013
Elcano’s BLOG http://www.blog.rielcano.org/
Federico Steinberg, Vuelve la guerra de divisas, 24 January 2013.
Joaquín Roy, La integración y cooperación eurolatinoamericana, 14 January 2013.
Alicia Sorroza, Opportunities for Spanish Diplomacy in Times of Crisis, 16 January 2013
William Chislett, Inside Spain. The government’s borrowing costs eased, reducing the likelihood that Spain will need a sovereign bail-out by the European Union. Bank of Spain tightens supervision. Stock market revives. Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy orders investigation into Popular Party’s accounts. Catalan UDC admits illegal financing with EU funds.
IEP’s magazin “Forschungsjournal Soziale Bewegungen” on the European Citizens Initiative
The next issue 4/2012 of the Forschungsjournal Soziale Bewegungen has published a thematic focus on the European Citizens Initiative. The editors Vera Faust, Jochen Roose, Annette Knaut, Katrin Böttger and Julian Plottka discuss the potentials and limits of this new instrument as well as its challenge to become an occupational therapy for the people. See the abstracts here.
IWE 2012/2013 newest publications and a book launch
On 13 December 2012, a 3-volume book was launched at IWE. The publication is in Hungarian, the title in English would be: Changing world economy – strategies, experiences and outlooks. The edition is freely downloadable at the IWE website (under the title “Változó világgazdaság I, II, III”)
Tamás Szigetvári, Turkey is back. Turkish interests on the Western Balkans, EU Frontier Study No. 9, CEU CENS, 2012
Péter Farkas, The Crisis and the Lessening of Economic Security. Financial Imbalances and the Mainline Model of Capitalism. In: Attila Fábián (ed.): A peaceful World is possible. Sopron, University of WestHungary Press, 2012. pp.184-201.
In 2012, the Institute of World Economics launched its blog where posts in English can also be read: http://vilaggazdasagi.blog.hu/tags/eng.
Newsest publications from the Latvian Institute of International Affairs, edited by Andris Spruds
1) Andris Spruds (ed.). The Economic Presence of Russia and Belarus in the Baltic States: Risks and Opportunities. – Riga: Latvian Institute of International Affairs, Centre for East European Policy Studies, Soros Foundation-Latvia, 2012, freely available at http://liia.lv/site/docs/The_Economic_Presence_for_WEB_atverums_2.1.pdf
2) Andris Spruds (ed.). Friendship in the Making: Transforming Relations between Germany and the Baltic-Visegrad Countries. – Riga: Latvian Institute of International Affairs, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, 2012, freely available at http://liia.lv/site/docs/Friendship-in-the-Making-final.pdf
3) Andris Spruds (ed.). The Rīga Conference Papers 2012. – Riga: Latvian Institute of International Affairs, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, 2012, freely available at http://liia.lv/site/docs/The_Riga_Conference_Papers_20121.pdf
Publications from the CEE Team, fall 2012
All new publications are available here.
CHEVALIER, Tom, L’Etat-providence et les jeunes, Paris, L’Harmattan, December 2012. (This work is the result of his master dissertation, for which he received the Dissertation Competition Prize of IEP from L’Harmattan in February 2012). Click here.
ROZENBERG, Olivier, Onze référendums simultanés : un choc de confiance démocratique, Paris, Jean Jaurès Fondation, December 2012. Click here.
LASCOUMES, Pierre, Action publique et environnement, Paris, PUF, Que sais-je?, November 2012 Click here.
Abstract: When the UMP was created in 2002 after the shock of April 21st, many were sceptical about its lasting power. Yet in the space of a decade, this refoundation in the form of a merger was to transform the right in France. The new party’s organisation, underpinned by the electoral calendar, deploys deep professionalization and exploits marketing tools. These transformations, which borrow from the model of the firm, have not led to the disappearance of partisan cultures and ideologies. On the contrary; the right-wing community is still very much alive and the UMP constitutes its melting pot, advocating a traditional social order based on a hierarchy of genres and generations and providing a pulpit for popular opinion. ‘Sarkozysm’ has permitted the partisan right in France to operate an ideological radicalisation which can be explained as much by the national strategies adopted in response to the FN as by the existence of certain local political cultures close to the far-right universe. This book adopts a sociological, historical and European approach to the phenomenon of partisanship applied to the right in France.
Florence Haegel is a professor at Sciences Po and Research Director at the Centre of European Studies. She is in charge of the Comparative Political Sociology Master at the Sciences Po Doctoral School.. Click here.
Press/Medias reviews are available here.
Strategy Papers on the Arctic or High North: A Comparative study, by A. JK Bailes, L. Heininen, IIA-CSSS
The future of the Arctic, as its ice melts by land and sea, has become a hot topic in governmental as well as academic and media circles. Over the last decade, each of the eight countries that founded the Arctic Council – Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, the Russian Federation, Sweden and the USA – has published at least one major policy document on the topic, as has the European Union as an institution. Often called Arctic ‘strategies’, these documents address a wide range of issues in the economic, environmental, and institutional fields as well as more basic issues of safety and sovereignty. This publication Strategy Papers on the Arctic or High North: A Comparative study and Analysis by Alyson JK Bailes, Adjunct Professor at the University of Iceland, and Lassi Heininen, Assistant Professor at the University in Rovaniemi, is also available in hard copy at the institute.
Elsa, Tulmets (ed.): Identities And Solidarity In Foreign Policy: East Central Europe and the Eastern Neighbourhood, Institute of International Relations, Prague 2012
Elsa, Tulmets (ed.): Identities And Solidarity In Foreign Policy: East Central Europe and the Eastern Neighbourhood, Institute of International Relations, Prague 2012.
The concepts of identity and solidarity have become particularly relevant in the context of regional integration. However, larger comparative approaches to the foreign policy identity of EU members remain rare, even after the EU’s Eastern enlargement in 2004/07. There is even less work on solidarity in foreign policy. The core idea of this publication is thus to investigate the link between identity and solidarity in the foreign policy of members of the European Union (EU), in particular its East Central European (ECE) members. Although many publications account for an interest in ECE foreign policies, only few analysts have tackled them in a comparative perspective. In fact, the study of ECE policies was so far constrained by the political agenda of accessions to the EU and the fi eld of foreign policy remained underestimated.
Costas Melakopides, Pragmatic Idealism Revisited: Russia’s Post-1991 Cyprus Policy and Implications for Washington, Mediterranean Quarterly (2012), Duke University Press, Vol.23, No 4, pp 107-134.
Costas Melakopides, Pragmatic Idealism Revisited: Russia’s Post-1991 Cyprus Policy and Implications for Washington, Mediterranean Quarterly (2012), Duke University Press, Vol.23, No 4, pp 107-134.
Abstract: Having previously applied the concept of pragmatic idealism to the “like-minded middle powers” during the Cold War, the author now aims to extend its application to great powers and even superpowers. This essay challenges the stereotypical realist conception of Russia’s Cyprus policy, demonstrating that, besides its pragmatic features, it reveals idealistic motives, especially since 1991. These motives issue from a rich nexus of historical, religious, and cultural bonds, resulting in support for essentially idealist legal norms and ethical values that defend the rights of the Republic of Cyprus. Moreover, since President Barack Obama’s worldview is widely, and properly, perceived to exhibit pragmatic idealism, it should follow that Washington’s own Cyprus policy should be refashioned along such principled lines.
The article is available here.
New publication of Institute for World Economics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, October 2012
Krisztina Vida (ed.), Strategic issues for the EU10 countries – Main positions and implications for EU policy-making, IWE-FEPS, Budapest, October 2012, 322 p.
Zlatko Šabič and Petr Drulák (eds.), Regional and International Relations of Central Europe, Palgrave Macmillan, 2012
Zlatko Šabič and Petr Drulák (eds.), Regional and International Relations of Central Europe, Palgrave Macmillan, 2012
This timely book appears after a decade of scant scholarly focus on Central Europe and its place in Europe and the world. Following the big themes of the 1990s (the EU and NATO enlargement), the recent political and economic developments such as the revival of the ‘Visegrad Four’ and the emerging tensions as a consequence of nationalist movements across Europe, this book addresses important and provocative issues surrounding Central Europe. Is Central Europe a region and does it have its own history? Are there more commonalities than dividing lines among Central European countries? Can Central Europe be a player in global politics? Is there a special role for Central Europe in – Europe? These questions have brought together a group of experts whose interdisciplinary analysis with empirical research offers a fresh insight into Central Europe’s position today.
New publications from Jean-Monnet Chair Team of University of Cologne
Wolfgang Wessels: The Maastricht Treaty and the European Council: The History of an Institutional Evolution, Journal of European Integration, Volume 34, Number 7, November 2012, pp. 753-767.
Abstract: Since its creation in 1974 the European Council has turned into the key institution in the institutional architecture of the EU polity. The Maastricht Treaty on the European Union was a history-making product of this body of heads of state or government. For the institutional evolution of the European Council itself the Maastricht Treaty confirmed and reinforced trends starting with the Hague summit in 1969. This article covers the pre-history of the European Council as well as the road from the birth of the European Council in Paris, 1974, to the Maastricht Treaty and the next steps via two treaty revisions and the constitutional convention to the Lisbon Treaty in 2009. This article will not only try to satisfy some historical curiosity, but point out fundamental factors, explaining why Union executive leaders have invested time and energy in the labour-intensive and partly frustrating exercise of the making and working of their club: this key institution helped them to emerge as powerful multi-level players in a multi-institutional architecture.
Sofia Vasilopoulou and Katjana Gattermann: Matching Policy Preferences: The Linkage between Voters and MEPs, Journal of European Public Policy, DOI:10.1080/13501763.2012.718892.
Abstract: The European Parliament has often been accused of its inability to link to European citizens. This article employs quantitative measures to investigate levels of congruence between individual MEPs and their voters on core policy issues following the 2009 EP elections. Operationalizing congruence as a ‘many-to-one’ relationship, it suggests that on socio-economic issues, the correspondence of policy preferences tends to be higher between voters and MEPs belonging to right-wing and liberal parties than for leftist MEPs. On socio-cultural issues, MEPs generally tend to have more liberal views than their representatives. Tobit models show that, depending on the issue, the strength of voter–MEP opinion congruence can be linked to the frequency of contacts and MEP seniority in office. Eurosceptic MEPs tend to be worse at representing their electorate, while voter–MEP agreement also tends to be affected by the electoral system and length of EU membership. The findings have implications for the legitimacy of European politics in current affairs.
Wolfgang Wessels and Cyril Gläser: Theoretischer Pluralismus und Integrationsdynamik: Herausforderungen für den “acquis académique”, in Hans-Jürgen Bieling/Marika Lerch (Hrsg.): Theorien der europäischen Integration, Wiesbaden, 2012, pp. 361-389.
FIIA Concluding projects, October 2012
The final report of the “Finnish Perspectives to the European Security Market” research project will be published on 15 October. The report analyses changes in the European defence and security market. The project was led by FIIA, implemented as a joint project with the National Defence University and the Finland Futures Research Centre and funded by the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (TEKES).
FIIA and the Polish Institute of International Affairs (PISM) have published a joint report “Still Awake: The Beginnings of Arab Democratic Change”. The report, edited by FIIA Researcher Timo Behr and PISM researcher Patrycja Sasnal, focuses on the political transition taking place in Yemen, Syria, Libya, Morocco and Egypt.
As the Arab world moves from the dismantling of autocratic regimes to the creation of new systems of governance, various models of transition have emerged. Post-revolutionary political systems are likely to mirror the complex political bargains that have characterized these transition processes. This suggests that electoral politics will remain messy and that unresolved conflicts will be frozen in the emerging political orders. However, with some of these transitional bargains now being contested, there is potential for a further deepening of democratic change; but also a real risk that the region will see a re-emergence of political conflict.
Fig Leaf or a New Fiscal Era? On the Potential Impact of the European Fiscal Compact, Issue 3/2012 of ‘integration’, Institut für Europäische Politik, October 2012
Fig Leaf or a New Fiscal Era? On the Potential Impact of the European Fiscal Compact by Friedrich Heinemann, Marc-Daniel Moessinger and Steffen Osterloh, Issue 3/2012 of ‘integration’, Institut für Europäische Politik, October 2012
In the current issue of ‘integration’, Friedrich Heinemann, Marc-Daniel Moessinger and Steffen Osterloh ask whether the reform of the Fiscal Compact, comprising both the introduction of strong numerical fiscal rules at national level and a modification of the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP), marks a new era of fiscal governance in the European Union or is just a fig leaf for the lacking fiscal union. Manuel Sarrazin and Sven-Christian Kindler examine the ‘Union method’ as a new mode of governance in the European Union concerning the Euro crisis and the political measures to solve it. They, thereby, compare it with the Community method.
Abstracts of these and the other articles are available here.
OIIP Latest Publications, October 2012
“Wissen und Forschen in einer globalisierten Welt” by Ruth Müller, Policy Paper 9/12, September 2012
Science and Technology have become increasingly important both for the everyday lives of people and within concurrent global economic and political developments. This significance is reflected in an increasing demand for strategically coordinated and analytically supported science and technology policy. The oiip has created a research focus that addresses these questions.
“Interdependenzen: Wie die Dynamiken des Syrienkonfliktes den Demokratisierungsprozess in der Türkei gefährden? by Cengiz Günay, Policy Paper 10/12, October 2012
The struggle for Syria has implications for the region and Turkey. Together with other neighboring countries, Turkey has been exposed to the dynamics emanating from the Syrian crisis. The Turkish government’s support for the Syrian rebels has induced shifts in Turkey’s foreign as well as domestic politics. In the face of the challenges posed by the developments in Syria, Turkey falls back to old reflexes. Increasing militarism,
nationalism and conservatism threaten the country’s democratization and reform process.
Die Obama-Jahre: „A Season for Nuclear Disarmament”?, by Hakan Akbulut, Policy Paper 8/12, August 2012
US President Barack Obama won many hearts and minds with the speech he delivered in Prague on April 5, 2009. In this address, he outlined his vision of a world free of nuclear weapons and listed a number of steps and measures his Administration would take towards making that vision a reality. On the eve of the conclusion of a START I follow-on treaty with Russia, even the former IAEA Director General, Hans Blix, reasoned in an editorial that thanks to Obama’s efforts, the season for disarmament might have finally arrived. With more than three years having passed since Obama’s Prague speech, this paper explores whether Obama has delivered on his promises and truly ushered in a „season for disarmament“.
oiip Working Papers
Schneller, höher, stärker … im globalen Vergleich: Eine empirische Analyse der Olympischen Spiele 2010/2012 by Jan Pospisil, oiip Working Papers 66, September 2012
Cyberspace and Governance—A Primer by Alexander Klimburg and Philipp Mirtl,oiip Working Papers 65, September 2012
This working paper has a threefold purpose: first, it proposes a better understanding of the difference between the Internet (interconnecting computers) and the World Wide Web (managing information). Against this background, a four-layer model of cyberspace is presented including a physical, logical, informational, and social layer. Second, the paper splits the national cybersecurity debate in five distinct subject areas, or mandates. These include Military Cyberactivities, Counter-Cybercrime, Intelligence and Counter-Intelligence, Critical Infrastructure Protection and National Crisis Management, and Cyberdiplomacy and Internet Governance, each of which is typically covered by a distinct government department. Third, as one of the most understated and least understood mandates on this list, Internet Governance is described at more length in the final section.
“The Informal Europeanization of EU Member State Immigration Policies” by Silvia Cavasola, IAI Working Paper, 25 September 2012
For years the EU has been fostering a common policy to integrate immigrants. Yet, whether its efforts have progressively created something like a homogeneous European model of integration remains an open question. An analysis of the approach to immigrant integration in the EU member states that receive the largest immigration flows, as well as of EU initiatives to promote greater policy harmonization among its member states, shows that partial convergence in national integration strategies is linked more to interstate emulation and parallel path development than to proactive EU legislation on the matter. This trend can be referred to as a process of “informal Europeanization”.
Please read the entire working paper here.
Briefing Note on the ‘Culture Strand of the Creative Europe Programme 2014-2020’, Institute for International Relations (IMO), September 2012
Note was been requested by the European Parliament’s Committee on Culture and Education and was done by the researchers from the Institute for International Relations – IMO: Colin Mercer, Nina Obuljen, Jaka Primorac and Aleksandra Uzelac. The publication was issued in September 2012 and it has provided analytical, conceptual, and policy commentary on the proposed Culture Strand of the Creative Europe Programme. Briefing Note takes into account all available commentary on this Programme from both official sources and a wide range of stakeholders, including published results of consultation and follow up discussions with key actors in the field by IMO research team. The focus is on both the plausibility and cogency of the overall policy architecture and on key points of acknowledged concern.
The Note is available at the European Parliament studies page.
Developments in and Obstacles to the US Pivot to Asia: What Alternatives for Europe? by Alessandro Riccardo Ungaro, IAI Working Papers, 24 September 2012
The US strategic guidance released in January 2012 represents a hallmark of US President Barack Obama’s foreign policy and forms integral part of the so-called “Pivot to Asia”. Rather than a radical departure from the past, the strategic guidance represents an evolution of US foreign policy towards the region, envisaging the reallocation of American military assets from Europe to the Asia-Pacific. Challenges, tensions and frictions between the US and regional actors may however hamper the implementation of the policy and require a delicate balancing act in which China will play a key role. On the European side, the US shift should be seen as an opportunity for the EU to review its policy priorities and elaborate its own strategy towards Asia.
Please read the entire working paper here.
“The Future of the European Convention on Human Rights after the Brighton Conference” by Antonio Bultrini, IAI Working Papers, 23 September 2012
It is widely recognized that the European Convention on Human Rights has led to the most advanced human rights protection system to date - and represents an important benchmark for several other international bodies. The individual right of application to the European Court, which unlike other human rights treaties is compulsory for State parties, is a unique feature and pillar of the system. However, the European Court is presently overwhelmed by an abnormal caseload: about 150,000 applications are currently pending in Strasbourg. Recent reforms have increased the Court’s efficiency. Yet the British Government has just tried to promote a new reform of the system. This attempt was not entirely disinterested and has led to an unprecedented mobilization by international civil society. The British move has nonetheless triggered a debate on the real challenges facing the European system.
Please read the entire working paper here.
FIIA latest publications, October 2012
The Finnish Journal of Foreign Affairs
The latest issue of the Finnish Journal of Foreign Affairs (Ulkopolitiikka-lehti) was published in mid-September. The issue takes a critical look at the (lack of) leadership in today’s world politics, analyses whether the US is capable of maintaining its leading role in the world amid deep internal divisions, and peeks behind the scenes of the great Chinese leadership game. The journal also introduces to its readers the new head of the Russian green opposition, Evgenia Chirikova, and tells about the book that President Tarja Halonen will not forget (The Kite Runner).
FIIA Briefing Papers 111-115
Jyrki Kallio, Kiinan meri vai kaikkien meri? Etelä-Kiinan meren sopassa on liikaa mausteita
Tanja Tamminen, Towards efficient early action: The EU needs a regional focus and proactive tools to prevent and manage conflicts
The Lisbon Treaty and the European External Action Service provide the EU with an excellent framework for comprehensive and effective crisis prevention and crisis management work. They just need to be utilised to the full. The security and development nexus can only be enhanced through long-term perspectives. Rather than renewing its general security strategy, the EU’s focus should be on preparing tailor-made and institutionally endorsed regional approaches and strategies, where the broad objectives would be operationalized into more concrete goals. In conflict-prone regions, goal-setting should be carried out through full participation with the beneficiary countries and their civil societies. Dialogue and mediation are perfect tools for achieving reconciliation and stability, and need to be utilized at every stage of comprehensive crisis management and at different levels of society. Comprehensive EU activities in the field of crisis prevention and crisis management should be duly evaluated, as only by looking at the bigger picture can lessons truly be learned and endorsed.
Charly Salonius-Pasternak, Not just another arms deal: The security policy implications of the United States selling advanced missiles to Finland
Finland’s decision to acquire advanced semi-stealthy Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missiles (JASSM) from the United States is much more than an arms deal – it has significant political and regional military implications. Finland is only the second country to be approved for JASSM. No NATO country has ever received such approval. This suggests something about the closeness of the relationship between the United States and Finland, as well as something about how the United States sees European and regional defence arrangements. In the web of multilateral, multinational and bilateral relationships that Finland is weaving to enhance its security, the US relationship is a key cable. The JASSM acquisition significantly changes Finland’s ability to disrupt enemy activities, both within Finland and beyond its borders. Despite being a conventional weapon, it will serve as a deterrent. Finnish decision-makers have a responsibility to understand both the implications of the new capabilities, and to ensure that the continued development of the Finnish Defence Forces is not inhibited due to misunderstandings of what a modern defence requires and consists of.
One should not expect the 23 September election to comply with democratic standards. The current legislation in Belarus does not guarantee a free and fair process. The institutional setting prevents a transparent vote count and the election of opposition candidates. Yet, in sending a full-fledged observation mission to Belarus, the OSCE again appears to be giving official Minsk the benefit of the doubt. Breaking the vicious circle of external regime legitimation would require consistency and restraint in giving this periodic electoral farce any credence whatsoever. Imitating procedural democracy brings regime consolidation for Lukashenka: enticing the opposition forces – and their Western supporters for that matter – into the electoral trap is a pre-emptive scheme to disqualify them. Decapitated, divided, distrusted, the opposition is incapable of carrying out regime change. The regime’s repressive build-up also dissuades Belarusians from mobilising to contest the predictable fraud – for now. They are nonetheless expressing increasing demands for independent election monitoring. In view of the 2015 presidential elections, the EU should invest more in the capacity-building and training of civil society actors, notably domestic election observers. Turning voters into reliable rule of law watchdogs could raise awareness in, and demand for democracy in Belarus.
Charly Salonius-Pasternak, Obama headed for victory: Four reasons why Romney is unlikely to re-bend the arc of history
The first presidential debate between Barack Obama and Mitt Romney did not dramatically change the underlying trends as the last month of campaigning gets underway. For a number of reasons, voters are still likely to award President Obama a second term.
Jyrki Kallio, Bart Gaens & Mikael Mattlin, Between a rock and a hard place: Senkaku islands dispute triggers Chinese nationalist backlash
With anti-Japanese demonstrations in numerous Chinese cities, some media have already been pondering the possibility of war breaking out between the two countries. China cannot afford to let nationalism get out of hand, as it could easily turn into voices of resistance against the government.
Arkady Moshes, “Pacific Russia” is still a dream: An APEC summit alone will not make the country a top player in the region
The APEC summit in Vladivostok is designed to emphasize just how much today’s Russia aspires to become a recognized Pacific power. But the context in which the summit will be held only serves to highlight the challenges to which Russia is and will be exposed both generally and specifically.
All FIIA publications can be downloaded from the Institute’s website.
Sciences-Po Latest Publications, October 2012
Daniel, Brugidou, Mathieu, Halpern, Charlotte, Lascoumes, Pierre, (dir.), Le Grenelle de l’environnement. Acteurs, dicours, effets, Paris, Armand Colin, October 2012
Laïdi, Zaki, Le monde selon Obama : La politique étrangère des Etats-Unis, Paris, Flammarion, September 2012
Laïdi, Zaki, Limited Achievements: Obama’s Foreign Policy, Palgrave MacMillan, Août 2012
Ratka, Edmund and Spaiser, Olga A. (dir), Understanding European Neighbourhood Policies. Concepts, Actors, Perception, Nomos Edition, July 2012
Kahn Sylvain, La place de la construction européenne dans la conquête puis la conservation du pouvoir par les socialistes français, 1966-1984, Les cahiers européens de Sciences Po n° 01/2012, July 2012
All the new publications of the CEE team available here.
“The Moral Enigma of an Intervention in Syria: A Just War Analysis” by Niamh Maria O’Sullivan, The Moral Enigma of an Intervention in Syria: A Just War Analysis Niamh Maria O’Sullivan, IAI Working Paper, 22 August 2012
Few issues in international politics have sparked more debate this year than the events unfolding in Syria. What began 17 months ago as peaceful marches seeking reform has brought Syria to the brink of a civil war that threatens to stop the Arab Spring dead in its tracks. As the death toll rises and accusations of crimes against humanity mount against Syrian President Bashar al-Assad and his ruling Ba’ath Party, many are calling for an armed intervention to put an end to the Assad regime’s widespread human rights abuses. Finding the right way forward for Syria, however, is proving elusive and so we turn to philosophy and, in particular, to Just War theory for guidance. Though often criticized as a soft or unrealistic approach to foreign policy, principles like just cause and proportionality guide our way through the moral enigma that has confounded the international community since the uprising began. The answers are far from easy. As the battle for Syria rages on, the most ethical, and difficult, thing to do might just be to stay out.
Please read the entire working paper here.
Elcano Royal Institute Publications, summer 2012
FATA in Northern Mali? by Fernando Reinares, Expert Comment 15/2012 – 31/7/2012
Measuring the international presence of countries: the Elcano Institute’s IEPG Index methodology revisited, Coordinators: Iliana Olivié and Ignacio Molina. Contributors: Ignacio Álvarez, Bruno Ayllón, Rafael Domínguez, Félix Arteaga, Manuel Gracia, Narciso Michavila and Antonio Vargas. WP 9/2012 (Translated from Spanish) – 20/7/2012
The publication of the IEPG’s 2nd edition entails some methodological changes which, nevertheless, alter neither its essence nor principles.
Spain’s Balancing Act: Net Contributor or Net Beneficiary of the EU Budget by Mario Kölling and Cristina Serrano Leal, ARI 50/2012 – 12/7/2012
In the ongoing negotiation of the MFF 2014-2020, Spain has to balance several interests, requiring a flexible position combined with some firm principles.
Staging the War on Drugs: Media and Organised Crime in Mexico by Edgar Moreno Gómez, WP 8/2012 – 10/7/2012.
This Working Paper offers an insight to understand the political ramifications of the news coverage of violence in Mexico. It shows that drug trafficking organisations have important goals related to the media, the impact of news on public opinion and the consequent influence over policy making.
Integration, Special issue on Europe’s value, the Institut für Europäische Politik e.V. (IEP), October 2012
Alternatives to the project of European integration are increasingly discussed. Meanwhile citizens like experts and politicians forget about the advantages of the European project, because its success is taken for granted. The quarterly journal “integration” takes that as a reason to publish a special issue on Europe’s value. Following Federal Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle’s plea to make the case for Europe anew, widely recognized experts discuss different dimensions of Europe’s value and question some simple cost-benefit-calculations. Another article deals with the development of European Studies, while the AEI reports from two conferences.
For more information visit IEP website
The first 100 days of Putin’s presidency see a tightening of the screws, Sean Roberts, FIIA Comment 7 (2012)
If Dmitry Medvedev was conciliatory in his final months as president, then Vladimir Putin seems intent on a more combative approach. But the Putin administration’s confident moves to re-establish order hide a deeper fear of more protests and a possible colour revolution scenario ahead of the autumn regional elections.
All FIIA publications can be downloaded from the institute’s website.
Monitoring Report 2012 by Gábor Túry and Krisztina Vida, Institute of World Economics
Gábor Túry and Krisztina Vida (eds.), Monitoring jelentés 2012 (Monitoring Report 2012), Institute of World Economics, RCERS, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, July 2012
As part of an annual series, this volume analyses the political and economic situation of the EU10 countries. Although the chapters on the examined ten central and eastern European member states are in Hungarian, the Foreword and the Summary are also available in English and the statistical tables are bilingual too.
Emerging multinationals and the role of virtual indirect investors. The case of Hungary by Magdolna Sass, Katalin Antalóczy and Andrea Éltető, Institute of World Economics
Magdolna Sass, Katalin Antalóczy and Andrea Éltető, Emerging multinationals and the role of virtual indirect investors. The case of Hungary. Eastern European Economics Vol. 50. No. 2. 2012, pp. 41-58
Eastern European Economics publishes original research on the newly emerging economies of Central and Eastern Europe, with coverage of the ongoing processes of transition to market economics in different countries, their integration into the broader European and global economies, and the ramifications of the 2008-9 financial crisis. An introduction by the journal’s editor adds context and expert insights on the articles presented in each issue.
European Criminal Justice Post-Lisbon: An Irish Perspective by Eugene Regan SC (ed.), IIEA, 25 July 2012.
This publication examines European criminal justice post-Lisbon, drawing on the expertise of leading practitioners from across the criminal justice spectrum, including US Attorney General, Eric H. Holder. It aims to inform policy debate, increase awareness of the implications of the changes in this policy area post-Lisbon and to flag upcoming developments under the Irish EU Presidency. The treaty changes are ultimately aimed at improving the livelihoods of our citizens and securing the rights of the individual to safety and freedom from the ripple effects of cross-border crime.
Contributors include key policy actors such as the Irish Garda (Police) Commissioner, the Irish Data Protection Commissioner, the head of the Criminal Assets Bureau, the Secretary General of the Irish Department of Justice and Equality, a former Director of Public Prosecutions, a former Attorney General of Ireland, the Attorney General of the United States and Eugene Regan SC, who also edited the publication. The preface is written by Nora Owen, former Minister for Justice and Chair of the IIEA Justice Group.
European Criminal Justice Post-Lisbon: An Irish Perspective can be downloaded here.
“A New Era of Federalism”, Centre international de formation européenne (CIFE), Spring 2012
L´Europe en formation, Centre international de formation européenne (CIFE) recently published an article on:
” Une nouvelle ère de fédéralisme – A New Era of Federalism” CIFE, Presses d’Europe, Printemps/Spring 2012, n° 363, ISSN 00144-2808. Numéro sous la direction de Francesco Palermo et Elisabeth Alber (EURAC).
L’Europe en formation publishes, since March 1960, articles on European integration, international relations, European social model and federalism. The electronic diffusion of L’Europe en formation is now undertaken by Cairn.info. The journal is accessible here.
Swedish Institute of International Affairs
Jan Joel Andersson and Erik Brattberg, “NATO-toppmötet 2012” [NATO Summit 2012]” UI Brief 12, Stockholm: Swedish Institute of International Affairs, 2012.
Erik Brattberg and Per Augustsson, “What Makes the Nordic-Baltic Region So Interesting to the U.S.?” in Volker, Kurt and Kupche, Ieva (eds.) Nordic-Baltic-American Cooperation: Shaping the U.S.-European Agenda, Washington, DC: Center for Transatlantic Relations, Johns Hopkins University, 2012.
Björn Fägersten, Swedish EU leadership or why beggars can’t be choosers, ECFR blog, 2 March 2012.
Summaries/Reports and Policy Briefs, Austrian Institute for International Affairs (oiip)
Policy Paper 7/12 by Heinz Gärtner and Hakan Akbulut, Die NATO nach dem Gipfel in Chicago 2012, June 2012
Panel Discussion Summary by Antonia Lehne, Transition in Afghanistan: Anspruch und Wirklichkeit, May 2012
Panel Discussion Summary by Witold Hametter, The EU and the “Global Shadows”: Are the EU efforts to contain and regulate the illegal trafficking of small arms, drugs and people a story of success?, March 2012
Information sources in the field of international relations and international integration of Croatia (IMO)
Snježana Ivanović, Informacijski izvori iz međunarodnih odnosa i međunarodna integracija Hrvatske (Information sources in the field of international relations and international integration of Croatia), Zagreb, Institute for International Relations, June 2012
The purpose of the booCover IMO publication, Information sources in the field of international relations and international integration of Croatiak, published in Croatian language, is to stress the need for good information sources in the field of international relations and to evaluate the role of libraries in both building the information and open democratic societies. Namely, only well informed citizens can actively participate in the political process, not leaving that task exclusively to political decision makers and epistemic communities. The book promotes the idea that it is necessary for the users in Croatia to get most of relevant information related to international relations, and particularly its political aspect, from a single point of access. Such access to digital information sources on the Internet is possible only by creating a vertical portal, i.e. vortal. Starting from the comparative analysis of the examples of good practice in the world, the book focuses on the elaboration of a vortal of international relations within the library of the Institute for International Relations (IMO), Zagreb.
Sanja Tišma, Ana-Maria Boromisa and Ana Pavičić Kaselj, Environmental Finance and Development, London and New York, Routledge, May 2012
Cover IMO Environmental Finance and DevelopmentThe book Environmental Finance and Development, authored by IMO researchers Sanja Tišma, Ana-Maria Boromisa and Ana Pavičić Kaselj, has been published in the Routledge Studies in Ecological Economics Series. This book focuses on environmental financing in the process of alignment with the EU. Based on a comparative analysis of national environmental strategies and financial needs, and their links with strategic development documents in five selected countries (Bulgaria, Romania, Slovenia, Croatia, Turkey), the book identifies major achievements and remaining challenges in the main areas of environmental regulation: nature protection, water, waste, air and climate change. For each area the same concept is applied: the current situation is presented, followed by an overview of institutional and legal frameworks. The division of competences between actors at the same or at different levels is addressed, costs of implementation are estimated and possible sources of financing identified. The analysis shows that a significant role in the decision making related to financing environmental protection has: (i) commercial value of environmental infrastructure necessary for services; (ii) issue of affordability; (iii) price setting mechanisms; (iv) risks for investors and creditors; and (v) policy stability and predictability.
The Institute of International and European Affairs (IIEA)
Patrick Keatinge and Ben Tonra, European Security in the 21st Century, 25 April 2012.
In this analytical paper published by the IIEA, Professors Patrick Keatinge and Ben Tonra examine the origins of the current security environment in Europe, trace some of the major conceptual debates associated with the recent evolution, describe the multilateral institutional framework and, finally, comment on the contribution of Ireland. Professors Patrick Keatinge and Ben Tonra are two of Ireland’s foremost academics in this field. The paper launches the IIEA European Security and Defence Series, and offers a broad outline of the policy sector as a whole as an introduction to the series. The series will continue over the coming months with further briefing papers and factsheets on specific aspects of European security and defence policy. The paper can be downloaded here.
Gina Hanrahan, Cyprus to Assume EU Presidency at a Critical Moment, 14 June 2012.
This report outlines the priorities of the Cypriot Presidency of the Council of the EU, which will begin on 1 July 2012. It follows a keynote address by the European Affairs Minister of the Republic of Cyprus, Andreas Mavroyiannis, at the IIEA on 13 June. The report can be read here.
IIEA, The Stability Treaty Ratification Map.
On 31 May 2012, the Irish people voted in a referendum on whether or not to opt in to the Fiscal Stability Treaty, an intergovernmental agreement signed by 25 of the 27 EU Member States. In the period leading to the referendum, the IIEA ran a high-impact information campaign, creating a suite of visually appealing and information-rich materials designed to help inform the public and policymakers about the content of the Stability Treaty and its implications for Ireland and Europe. The Stability Treaty Ratification Map is one of the innovative infographics of this information campaign that remains relevant after the votes have been cast. It visually tracks the timeline and method of ratification for each of the twenty-five signatories. It will be updated regularly as the ratification process proceeds. The IIEA Stability Treaty Ratification Map can be viewed here.
Finnish Institute of International Affairs (FIIA)
Finnish Journal of Foreign Affairs
The latest issue of Finnish Journal of Foreign Affairs (Ulkopolitiikka-lehti) was published in early June. It takes a look at the ecological boundaries of our planet and looks for possible plan B’s in the fight against climate change: what ought to be done if greenhouse gas emission reductions fail? The journal also introduces the Swedish statistics wizard Hans Rosling, and visits Iceland to see how the island state is making its way up after the financial crash.
All FIIA publications can be downloaded from the institute’s website. The most recent FIIA publications include:
- FIIA Working Papers 74-75
- FIIA Briefing Papers 103-110
Juha Jokela & Kaisa Korhonen, A Eurosceptic big bang: Finland’s EU policy in hindsight of the 2011 elections
Hanna Ojanen & Barbara Zanchetta,Turkey and the Iranian nuclear programme: Key to progress in regional disarmament?
Antto Vihma & Harro van Asselt, Great expectations: Understanding why the UN climate talks seem to fail
Sciences Po, Centre d’études européennes
All the new publications of the CEE team on the website
Pierre Lascoumes and Patrick Le Galès, Sociologie de l’action publique, (2e édition), Paris, Armand Colin, May 2012
Olivier Rozenberg and Shane Martin (eds), The roles and Function of Parliamentary Questions, Routledge, “Library of legislative studies”, April 2012
Adrian Favell, Before and After Superflat: A Short History of Japanese Contemporary Art 1990-2011, Blue Kingfisher Limited, April 2012
Electronic Collection “SPES Policy Papers“ launched
The electronic collection “SPES Policy Papers“ is dedicated to issues of current and future relevance to European foreign and security policy. Written by fellows of the Study Programme on European Security (SPES) for fellows from Central and Eastern Europe – conducted by IEP and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation – as well as researchers from IEP, the papers focus on four thematic clusters:
• The EU and Russia
• European Enlargement and Neighbourhood Policy
• The EU’s civilian and military crisis management
• European energy policy and climate change policy
Against the background that the scientific debate on European foreign and security policy is often dominated by Western perspectives, this paper series stands out by providing a platform for alternative viewpoints that focus on external perceptions and assessments of EU policies, actions and discourses.
The first policy paper (to download here) written by Iryna Solonenko attempts to explain to what extent the EU has had an impact on internal developments in Ukraine since the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) was launched in 2005. By tracing the resonance that this EU policy has had on different actors and processes, the paper challenges the dominant discourse about the failure of the ENP.
For more information on SPES please go to http://www.iep-berlin.de/699.html?&L=1
UI Occasional Paper No 7: The European Security Strategy: Reinvigorate, Revise or Reinvent?
The EU’s European Security Strategy (ESS) offered the first clear expression of the EU’s global security aims. Eight years later, new attention to the ESS is needed and a new ESS may be required. This is the conclusion of a new Occasional Paper published by the Swedish Institute of International Affairs. The paper argues that the timing is right for a discussion on the EU’s global role, against the backdrop of institutional change, shifting geopolitics, and crises in the EU’s neighborhood. Drawing lessons from previous strategic drafting processes, including in the EU and in NATO, the paper argues that a new process should be launched with one of three goals in mind: reinvigorate the existing strategy, revise the ESS, or reinvent a new document with a broader strategic scope. The analysis in this paper offers the foundation for a rigorous debate on the future of the EU’s strategic intentions in the world.
The report is available online here or on the follwing link here.
EU-27 Watch No. 9 / EU-27Watch.org released
The latest edition of the EU-27 Watch is available free of charge at www.eu-27Watch.org. In this edition, experts on European integration from the 27 member states and 4 candidate countries disclose the Euro-political discourse relevant to their respective countries in English.
Topics of the ninth edition include:
the implementation of the Lisbon Treaty;
the European Neighbourhood Policy and enlargement;
European economic policy and the financial crisis;
European climate and energy policy.
The EU-27 Watch has provided concise depictions of the prevailing European debates for the past 6 years. Through use of the footnotes, further English sources can be found on country specific issues.
The new platform, www.eu-27Watch.org, presents the reader enhanced access to the texts. Reports are sorted by country or by question, presenting the reader quicker access to information. The timeline gives an overview of the European political environment since 2004.
Robert Schuman on Hungary and Europe
by Graham Avery, former Secretary General of TEPSA, visiting Fellow at the Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European University Institute, Florence, Senior Member of St. Antony’s College, University of Oxford and Honorary Director General of the European Commission
Click here to read the publication.
Source:The Hungarian Quarterly
Peer-reviewed Journal, Vol. 20, No. 1, Institute of International Relations, Prague (IIR), October 2012
Perspectives (ISSN 1210-762X) is a peer-reviewed journal published twice a year in English. Its subtitle is The Review of International Affairs. It has been published since 1993 and peer-reviewed since 2002. By now it has established itself as the leading journal in Central and Eastern Europe, dealing with ranges of issues from international relations theory to contemporary international politics, including regional and global issues that affect international relations.
Articles published in Perspectives are always based on strong theoretical framework and use sound methodological instruments. In order to ensure that these high standards are met, every article submitted for publication undergoes the process of peer review. Thus, at least two or three world’s leading experts in the field concerned are asked to submit their review report on the article. Based on this report, the article is either published or sent back to the author for revision or turned down.
All the volumes of the IRR Journal Perspectives can be download here.
Sciences Po Paris CEE Publications and press reviews, February 2013
All the new publications of the CEE team are available here.
Duchesne, Sophie, Frazer, Elizabeth, Haegel, Florence, Van Ingelgom, Virginie (dir.), Citizens’ Reactions to European Integration Compared. Overlooking Europe, Palgrave Macmillan, January 2013,
What do citizens say about Europe? Before the crisis of 2008 citizens in Britain, France and Francophone Belgium were ‘overlooking’ Europe by ignoring it in favour of globalisation, economic flows, and crises of political corruption. Innovative focus group methods allow analysis of the nature of their reactions and positions, and demonstrate how euroscepticism is a red herring. Instead they articulate indifference to and ambivalence about Europe contrasting with activists who engage in conflict about European issues. The analysis shows national and social differences. French projection contrasts with British exteriorisation and Belgian incorporation. The social gap is not a matter of deficits: workers have real arguments about issues close to home while managers show more concern about European politics.This book is part of the qualitative turn in European studies and both complements and challenges established knowledge on European attitudes.
Reguer-Petit, Manon, Les belles-mères et la politique, L’Harmattan, December 2012
Auel, Katrin, Rozenberg, Olivier, Thomas, Anja, Lost in Transaction? Parliamentary. Reserves in EU bargains, OPAL Online Paper Series, October 2012
Parliamentary scrutiny reserves have become a popular parliamentary instrument for the scrutiny of EU documents over the last two decades. While the exact provisions for them vary between the member states and according to their parliaments’ overall scrutiny system, parliamentary reserves generally mean that government representatives do not, or cannot, officially agree to a proposal in the Council (or COREPER or the working groups) while the parliamentary scrutiny process is ongoing. Yet despite the proliferation of reserve provisions, we actually know very little about them. The paper will therefore provide an overview over the specific features of scrutiny reserves in different member states. In addition, it investigates whether scrutiny reserves actually are an effective instrument to safeguard parliamentary influence in EU affairs by looking at how they are being dealt with at different levels of the Council negotiations.
Press/Medias: All press review available here.
Costas Melakopides (with Marina Salvaridi), The ‘Pragmatic Idealism’ of Russia’s Post-Cold War Policy towards Cyprus, The Cyprus Review, Spring 2012, Vol.24, Number 1, pp. 71-97
Stereotypically, Moscow’s policies towards Cyprus, like those of the UK and the US, have been treated diachronically via the hegemonic analytical paradigm, especially during the Cold War, namely ‘Political Realism’. And yet, primarily since 1991 – but arguably even earlier – Moscow’s Cyprus policies have been quite distinct, being marked by such ‘idealistic’ characteristics, as sustained support for the UN Resolutions, for international law (including respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity) and international ethics (including solidarity, protection of human rights, and opposition to illegality and injustice). Therefore, whereas the ‘power-political’ reading of Washington and London’s Cyprus policies remains valid, the identical reading of Moscow’s policies needs to be transcended. Thus, the concept of ‘Pragmatic Idealism’, first introduced regarding Canadian foreign policy, is applied here to the sui generis Russia-Cyprus relationship which, after all, has been thoroughly affected by historical, political, religious, cultural, and axiological affinities and bonds.
Costas Melakopides, “Labyrinthine Triangle: Cyprus-European Union-Turkey”, International and European Politics, March-June 2012, Number 25, pp. 165-177 (in Greek).
FIIA Publications: Reports, Working Papers, Briefing Papers and Comments, February 2013
FIIA Reports 35-36
Katri Pynnöniemi (ed.): Russian critical infrastructures: Vulnerabilities and policies
The Russian policy on critical infrastructure protection was outlined in the early 2000s and has been consolidated in recent years as a part of the national security strategy. It is built upon the civil defence system of the Soviet era, a system that has been modernized under the auspices of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia.
The Russian policies on critical infrastructure protection (CIP) are evolving against a background composed of an uneasy combination of factors: the degeneration of infrastructures critical for the country’s economic and social development, and the de-legitimization of political institutions responsible for protecting ‘population’ and ‘territory’. The recent major catastrophes in Russia, the forest fires in 2010 in particular, have become examples of political events that offer a point of reference for the current regime’s failure to uphold its promises of ‘order and stability’.
Global climate change and the extraction of natural resources in the Arctic region are regarded as both a challenge and an opportunity for Russia. In Russian and European discussions, the Northern Sea Route is usually viewed in terms of opportunity, as it will form one of the major corridors of the global commercial flows. The extraction of oil and gas reserves in the Arctic is a long-term project that has intensified in recent years, although the pace of development has slowed down of late. However, it is generally acknowledged that the ‘opening of the new northern frontier’ is anything but simple. Climate change, and the possible melting of the Russian permafrost resulting from it, poses a real challenge that adds an entirely new dimension to the notion of ‘critical infrastructures’.
European foreign policy is at a complicated crossroads. The European model is challenged by changing patterns of global power and interdependence, and the economic crisis is producing a backlash on the integration project. National foreign services are under the dual pressure of the economic crisis and an overall decline in the importance of traditional diplomacy, while the implementation of the Lisbon Treaty and the creation of the European External Action Service (EEAS) are supposed to stimulate an internal logic towards more EU integration and burden-sharing in foreign policy.
This report asks how to equipe European foreign policy for the 21st century. What kind of diplomatic system will be at the service of European foreign policy, forging together EU and national elements? How are the EEAS and national diplomacies going to find a modus vivendi and a new division of labour?
The authors argue that the EEAS needs to be at the centre of an emerging EU system of diplomacy, shaping it and not just being shaped by others, and creating a new sense of unity. At the same time, it is essential for the legitimacy and effectiveness of European diplomacy that the EEAS interacts smoothly with national foreign services.
FIIA Working Papers
Timo Behr & Aaretti Siitonen: Building bridges or digging trenches? Civil society engagement after the Arab Spring
When seeking to engage and assist Arab civil society, western donors are faced with several broad challenges in the new regional context. First and foremost, they will have to avoid doing anything that could deepen the growing divisions among different segments of Arab civil society.
Second, donors ought to encourage an effective and balanced relationship between state institutions and civil society. While before the revolutions many Arab countries suffered from a strong and autocratic state, today state weakness has become an equally great challenge.
Third, donors will have to find a way to engage with the new actors, organizations and social movements that have been at the forefront of the Arab Spring uprisings. To engage with some of these actors will be challenging given their non-hierarchical organizational structures, virtual membership, unclear legal position, and sometimes undefined goals.
Finally, donors will have to tread carefully in the highly sensitive new operating environment in the Arab transition countries. In order to regain trust with state institutions and civil society actors, donor engagement needs to build on national development strategies and local needs assessments.
Foreign donors, of course, can only do so much in order to support the development of a liberal and pluralistic civil society in the Arab world. Far more important than effective and well-designed development projects is the ability of different segments of Arab civil society to reconcile their differences and to endorse diversity. In order to support this process, donors will have to exercise patience and will have to avoid actions that contribute to further social polarization. To this end, sending the right political message will often be just as important as well-designed projects.
The recent transformation in Myanmar has brushed up the country’s international status and image, and Western and Asian countries alike are eager to reap the benefits of the ongoing changes, but the economy and financial sectors are in dire need of reform.
In order to increase the awareness for further reforms, Western input is vital. Given the fact that the EU has always been a strong economic player in Myanmar and in East Asia in general, it is in a position to offer important incentives for further change by increasing development aid, rewarding gradual political reform, and investing in joint ventures while taking into account social responsibilities.
The greatest challenge likely lies in Myanmar’s continuing ethnic tensions. Here the EU can offer expertise on conflict mediation and capacity-building, acting as a “middle power” or regional stabilizer.
In spite of these remaining challenges, the ongoing gradual reforms are more than a cosmetic contrivance for Western consumption, and are likely to continue. Current key actors in the ruling USDP party have been groomed for a future role as civilian leaders in the “discipline-flourishing democracy”, and are reform-minded. The national elections in 2015 will reveal to what extent the ruling elite is genuinely dedicated to further democratization.
True democracy in the Western sense will require substantial changes in the constitution. This, however, is impossible without the support of the military and will therefore likely be a lengthy process.
FIIA Briefing Papers 120-121
Charly Salonius-Pasternak: Carving out his place in history: What challenges will Barack Obama tackle in his second term?
As he begins his second term, President Barack Obama’s place in history is assured. A successful second term would set him on the path to becoming one of the most highly regarded presidents in US history.
Domestic politics will continue to be Obama’s focus during his second term. He will oversee the implementation of his signature first-term accomplishments, and seek additional policy changes in how the US approaches immigration and climate change.
President Obama’s second-term foreign policy team will continue the Pivot to Asia, while refining the emerging Obama Doctrine. The use of drones, Special Forces and cyber weapons will continue, as lower-cost tools to directly address threats to US national security.
Europe must take far more responsibility for its defence and regional security, for its relationship with neighbours in the east and the south, and the EU should strive to achieve a Transatlantic Free Trade Area, while President Obama remains in office.
The EU-Russia strategic partnership has had its ups and downs but is currently facing a very different challenge. Despite many arguments, Brussels and Moscow never doubted the overall significance of their relationship. However, at the present time, they are evidently less interested in treating each other as priority partners.
By banning US citizens from adopting Russian orphans, the Putin administration is attempting to deflect attention away from corruption issues and utilise anti-American sentiment to discredit opponents. But these latest efforts at manipulating public opinion may have unintended consequences.
Towards an Irish Foreign Policy for Britain by Daithi O’Ceallaigh and James Kilcourse, IIEA, August 2012
Towards an Irish Foreign Policy for Britain by Daithi O’Ceallaigh and James Kilcourse, IIEA, August 2012
The success of Queen Elizabeth’s visit to Ireland in May 2011 underlines the huge improvement in the relationship between Ireland and the United Kingdom. This relationship changed as a result of the ties that developed between London and Dublin as they together sought to resolve the conflict in Northern Ireland. The improvement was also greatly facilitated by their common membership of the European Communities, and then the European Union, to which they acceded in 1973.
There is now a possibility, some would say a probability, that the UK will lessen its ties with the European Union, or may even withdraw from it altogether. The euro crisis has led to a deepening of the relationships between the members of the Eurozone, who are heading towards a banking union to be followed by elements of a financial and, perhaps, a political union. Simply put, it looks as if the UK will move further away from Brussels while Ireland will move closer.
The implications for Irish foreign policy of this divergence between London and Dublin are examined in this paper. First, the paper assesses the current state of bilateral relations between Britain and Ireland, as exemplified by the Taoiseach and Prime Minister’s Joint Statement at Downing Street on 12 March 2012. It then examines the UK’s position on Europe and how its place within the EU may change over the coming years. The intensity in the UK of the debate about its membership of the EU suggests that it will follow one of two paths: repatriating key competences from Brussels or withdrawing completely from the EU. The paper analyses what Ireland’s options might be in each of these cases in light of the Irish Government’s stated aim of remaining a full and active member of the EU.
Please click here to read the entire publication.
FIIA’s Publications, December 2012
The latest issue of the Finnish Journal of Foreign Affairs (Ulkopolitiikka-lehti), published in early December, focused on the nature of money and the future of the current monetary system. In profile interview, the journal discussed the role of the European Central Bank with Sirkka Hämäläinen, a former member of the executive board. The journal also examined cyber warfare and rising anti-Semitism among young French muslims.
Starting with the latest issue, a full electronic version of the journal is published at Lehtiluukku.
FIIA Reports 33-34
Harri Mikkola, Jukka Anteroinen & Ville Lauttamäki, Uhka vai mahdollisuus? Suomi ja Euroopan puolustus- ja turvallisuusmarkkinoiden muutos
FIIA Briefing Papers 116-119
Abstract: The victory of the Georgian Dream Coalition (GDC) over the United National Movement (UNM) has brought pluralism into Georgian policymaking. Until the power shifts from the President to the Prime Minister in 2013, the country will be led by an awkward dual power. New leadership offers great opportunities for Georgia. It can improve its democratic system and economic growth and establish a dialogue with Russia and the breakaway districts of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. This would alleviate the frozen conflict and tense security dilemma on the boundary lines. If the transition of power does not go well, there will be prolonged power struggles that could cripple the policymaking and cast Georgia back to pre-Saakashvili times. Saakashvili’s UNM is still a very significant player in Georgian politics and it is important for the GDC and the UNM to find a way to cooperate. In order to smooth the fragile transition period, Georgia needs special support and attention.
Abstract: The European sovereign debt crisis is the result of capital flows across the single market. The danger that such capital flows could unleash market speculation was known from the start; indeed, the single currency was created to remove the threat of exchange rate instability. The problem is that the architects of the single currency did not consider the impact of capital market integration on the banking sector or on the relationship between banks and national governments. Once markets lost confidence in the security of their cross-border investments, investors began to pull back their capital and the internal market for financial services started to disintegrate. The creation of a banking union is part of the solution. However, the euro area also needs a common ‘risk-free’ asset to use as a safe haven in times of crisis.
Abstract: If Russia is to follow an evolutionary path to democracy, then the regime must be ready to draw the so-called ‘non-systemic’ opposition into political processes. This gradualist formula for democratic change is also the formula for political stability. A number of liberalising reforms conducted by the regime in response to widespread protests following the December 2011 State Duma election gave grounds for optimism that this process is now underway. However, any hopes that these events would kick-start democratic reforms were short-lived. Rather than draw in opponents, the regime has sought to isolate them, using a combination of reform, non-reform, dividing tactics and repression. But the results have not been positive. The non-systemic opposition is under increasing pressure, having seen its options all but reduced to more protesting. It is also showing signs of radicalisation. At the same time, the Kremlin’s uncompromising approach is undermining regime stability. The pressure is building in the Russian political system. The combination of repression and radicalisation could easily see political stagnation degenerate into instability and the EU should take this new dynamic into account in its future policy planning.
Charly Salonius-Pasternak & Jarno Limnéll, Transatlantic cybersecurity: The only winning move is to play with others
Abstract: Cybersecurity concerns everyone, and is everyone’s responsibility. It is a genuine example of a society-wide security issue. The United States is ahead of Europe in discussing and integrating (military) cybersecurity into its foreign and security policies. For the US, the biggest challenges at the moment are: updating legal frameworks, creating cyber rules of engagement for the military, building cyber deterrence and clarifying the cybersecurity roles and responsibilities of government and private sector actors. Cooperation at national and international levels is integral to improving cybersecurity.This includes updating international and domestic legal frameworks to ensure that state actions are accountable, and to protect citizens from wanton strikes at critical infrastructure. Governments must hold private sector partners accountable, and through partnerships ensure that societal cybersecurity is not overshadowed by private interests – public-private partnerships have a crucial role to play in this.
FIIA Working Papers
Abstract: This paper explores the role of keyword control, in other words the blocking and unblocking of search keywords, on Sina’s popular microblog platform during media campaigns over politically sensitive issues in China. The author examines media campaigns in Chinese newspapers, television, microblogs and other media forms during two separate large-scale protests in December of 2011 in Guangdong province, one in the village of Wukan and the other in the town of Haimen. This paper uses these case studies to examine which acts of keyword control might be part of a set of coordinated directives in a broader media campaign over a particular politically sensitive issue. Observations based on these case studies suggest that changes in keyword control on microblogs might be the earliest detectable sign of shifts in the government’s position in their response to politically sensitive issues.
Finnish Foreign Policy Paper 2
Abstract: Finland’s record in the UN is one of continuity and consistency. Many features that characterized its approach more than fifty years ago are still visible in its profile today. This is self-evident to some extent, of course, because Finland has been and will continue to be a small state. The emphasis on international law and the UN Charter naturally follow on from this. It is obvious that the space for successful small state activism is more favourable in a relaxed international situation than at times of tension. In this sense the opportunities for Finland to act constructively in the United Nations have also improved since the Cold War and the country’s accession to the European Union. Credibility is one of Finland’s strongest assets in the United Nations and in the international community as a whole. Finland has no hidden agenda or special interests in the United Nations, but endeavours to serve the interests of the whole international community – now and in the future with concrete, feasible and pragmatic contributions.Finland did not win a seat in the Security Council for 2013-2014, but it will continue to work in the same way and for the same goals in the United Nations as it has done in the past and as it would have done in the Security Council.
Abstract: In recent years, the EU policies of Estonia and Finland have evolved in opposite directions. While Finland has experienced a rise in Euroscepticism, Estonia has become an increasingly strong supporter of deepening European integration.
Mikael Mattlin, Jyrki Kallio, Charly Salonius-Pasternak, Mikael Wigell & Antto Vihma, Haussa ulkopoliittinen identiteetti: Luoko Suomi itse oman linjansa vai syntyykö linja muiden tahdosta?
Abstract: Increased support for Catalan separatism is raising fears of a domino effect in Spain and the EU, since a possible secession would set a precedent for how to form a new state in the present day, and how to disengage from the EU and the monetary union.
Marikki Stocchetti, The polarized post-2015 development puzzle: The poorest still fall behind
Abstract: 2015 will mark a moment of truth for the international community as the era of the Millennium Development agenda (2000-2015) comes to an end. The polarization of world poverty into “fragile” and “strong” states poses a puzzle that requires rethinking at both global and national levels.
Publications from the TOTAL Chair of EU Foreign Policy, College of Europe
- Stephan Keukeleire and Bas Hooijmaaijers, EU-India relations and multilateral governance: where is the „strategic partnership‟? New Delhi, The Foreign Policy Research Centre Journal, no. 13, 2013, pp. 118-122.
- Stephan Keukeleire and Kolja Raube, The Common Security and Defense Policy: Development, Added Value, and Challenges’, in Federiga Bindi (ed.) The Foreign Policy of the European Union: Assessing Europe’s Role in the World, Washington, Brookings Institution Press, 2012, pp. 62-85.
- Raphaël Metais, Charles Thépaut, Stephan Keukeleire (eds.), The European Union’s Rule of Law Promotion in its Neighbourhood: A Structural Foreign Policy Analysis, Bruges, EU Diplomacy Paper, No. 4, 2013.
Publications from the Institute for European Politics (IEP), Berlin, autumn 2012
Integration November 2012
The first article of the fourth issue of integration (November 2012) covers the topic of differentiated European integration from an academic point of view. The author Funda Tekin draws attention to the reality of Opt-outs, Opt-ins and Opt-arounds in the area of freedom, security and justice. Differentiated integration will, moreover, represent an academic research field in the Institut für Europäische Politik. integration, further, discusses the successful coordination of the Danish EU Presidency in turbulent times. Another article deals with the evolvement and development of the EEAS and the organisation of the European foreign and development aid. A fourth focus lies on subnational administrations as guarantors of legitimacy in the EU.
See online abstracts.
Vera Faust/Jochen Roose/Annette Knaut/Katrin Böttger/Julian Plottka (eds.): The European Citizen‘s Initiative – Occupational therapy for the people?
The ECI is the focus of the issue 4/2012 of the Forschungsjournal Soziale Bewegungen. Eight articles discuss potentials and limits of this new instrument. Julian Plottka, Katrin Böttger and Annette Knaut give an overview on the procedure and on the current state of research on the ECI. Jo Leinen interprets the ECI as a pioneer of the European public. In addition, Paolo Ponzana reports on the evolvement and on the hopes referring to the ECI. Reiner Keller and Annette Knaut disagree with this concept of the European public that, from their point of view, results from national-state oriented thinking. Alternatively, they suggest the concept of transnational discourse spheres. Laurent Bernhard and Theo Schiller discuss the procedures of direct democracy: In terms of that Bernhard focuses on Switzerland, whereas Schiller adopts an internationally comparative perspective. Being the co-coordinators of the first registered initiative “Fraternité 2020”, Marcus Gastinger and Georg Jürgens summarise the practical implementation of initiatives and the difficulties that have occurred launching this new instrument of participative democracy. Finally, Christine Quittkat discusses whether the ECI is an instrument for citizens to participate in EU politics.
The abstracts of all articles are available here.
European Security in the 21st Century: The EU’s Comprehensive Approach by Linda Barry, IIEA, 17 July 2012.
This IIEA paper explores the significance of the EU’s comprehensive approach to crisis management. Under this approach the EU takes a holistic view of a (potential) crisis situation and recognises that effective, sustainable solutions can only be achieved by using the full range of civilian and military instruments at its disposal.
The paper considers how the EU institutions have been re-aligned by the Lisbon Treaty to facilitate the implementation of the comprehensive approach. It demonstrates that this is a work in progress and that the operational aspects currently lag behind conceptual developments. It examines the implications for Ireland and Europe and concludes that the comprehensive approach creates an opportunity for Ireland to be at the centre of the Union’s response to the complex security threats of the 21st century in a manner that respects the country’s particular strengths and values.
The paper can be downloaded here.
This paper forms part of a series of briefing papers on specific aspects of European security and defence policy. The first paper in the series, European Security in the 21st Century, was written by Professors Patrick Keatinge and Ben Tonra. It was published by the IIEA in April 2012, offering a broad outline of the policy sector as a whole. It is available here.
Publications of the Elcano Royal Institute, Madrid, fall 2012
Charles Powell and Federico Steinberg, The Pain in Spain: Light at the End of the Tunnel? Elcano Royal Institute, 12 December 2012.
Carlota García Encina and Carlos Malamud, Correa and Assange: A Peculiar Relationship. Elcano Royal Institute, 10 December 2012
Pablo Bustelo, North Korea and the December 2012 Rocket Launch: A New Deal? Expert Comment 39/2012, Elcano Royal Institute, 14 December 2012
Rajendra K. Jain, The European Union and the Emerging Asian Powers of China and India, ARI 78/2012 – Elcano Royal Institute, 19 November 2012
Ignacio Molina, Independentismo e integración europea (I): la imposible adhesión automática a la UE de un territorio secesionado, ARI 80/2012 Elcano Royal Institute, 22 November 2012
Iliana Olivié, Are the BRICs Broken? Expert Comment 34/2012- Elcano Royal Institute, 19 November 2012
Alicia Sorroza, Perspectivas para Europa en la política exterior de EEUU: entre Obama y Romney. ARI 74/2012 – Elcano Royal Institute, 30 October 2012
Mario Kölling and Cristina Serrano Lea, The Negotiation of the Multiannual Financial Framework: Budgeting Europe 2020 or Business as Usual? ARI 68/2012, Elcano Royal Institute, 19 October 2012
Carlota García Encina, Un balance de la política exterior y de seguridad de Barack Obama. ARI 72/2012 – Elcano Royal Institute, 29 October 2012
William Chislett, Inside Spain Nº 89 , Elcano Royal Institute, 20 November 2012
C. Raja Mohan, India’s New Foreign Policy. ARI 65/2012, Elcano Royal Institute, 17 October 2012
William Chislett, The EU’s Progress Report on Turkey: No End in Sight. ARI 63/2012, Elcano Royal Institute, 12 October 2012
William Chislett, Spain’s Crisis: The State of Play. WP 17/2012, Elcano Royal Institute, 12 November 2012.
Mario Kölling and Natividad Fernández Sola, Bridging the Gap between Ambitions, Expectations and Capability: External Action in the EU’s Multiannual Financial Framework (2014-20). WP 16/2012 Elcano Royal Institute, 6 November 2012
Joaquín Roy, ‘Houston, We Have Too Many Problems’: The US, Iraq, North Africa, Afghanistan and… Syria. WP 15/2012 Elcano Royal Institute, 2 November 2012
Gonzalo Escribano, Shifting Towards What? Europe and the Rise of Unconventional Energy. ARI 82/2012,Elcano Royal Institute,10 December 2012
William Chislett, The Rise of Spain’s International Presence, Elcano Royal Institute, 15 October 2012.
More publications available here.
Newest Publications from the Institute of World Economics, Budapest
Miklós Somai, EU budget: less money, less Europe? The new MFF seen from the new member states’ perspective, In: Unia Europejska.pl, No 1(218), January/February 2013, Institute for Market, Consumption and Business Cycles Research, pp.13-21.
Gábor Túry, International Firm Responses to Crisis Impacts: The Case of the Automotive Industry, In: Michal Zajac and Roman Nowaczek (eds.), Airports and the Automotive Industry: Security Issues, Economic Efficiency and Environmental Impact, pp. 145-158.
Zsuzsa Ludvig (ed.), East European Studies No. 4. Eurasian Challenges – Partnerships with Russia and other issues of the post-Soviet area, Budapest, 2013, 164 p., Under edition, Institute of World Economics, Research Centre for Economic and Regional Studies of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, ISSN 2063-9465
The Effects of the Economic Crisis on Industrial Relations in Croatia by Hrvoje Butković, Višnja Samardžija, Sanja Tišma, Institute for International Relations – IMO, Zagreb, November 2012
The Book is published by in English and Croatian IMO as a result of the EC funded project „The Economic Crisis Impact on Industrial Relations National Systems: Policy Responses as Key Recovery Tools“, coordinated by the Centre for Economic Development from Sofia. The book examines changes in industrial relations in Croatia as a result of the economic crisis. During 2012 in particular media attention on industrial relations and the social dialogue in Croatia increased as country witnessed numerous difficulties in conducting an effective social dialogue at the national level. Research results indicate that crisis led to questioning of the routine patterns of industrial relations in Croatia, requesting from the social partner’s re-examination of their previous action strategies. The authors advocate for the rapprochement of standpoints of employers, trade unions and the Government on the ways for getting out of the crisis as precondition for leading a successful policy oriented social dialogue.
Please click here to read the entire publication.
“Who is Afraid of the D-word? Towards the Democratic European Union” by Vít Beneš, The Institute of International relations, September 2012
After decades of discussions, the EU offered very little to mitigate its democratic deficit. Now, faced with three imminent crises (the debt crisis, the euro crisis, the banking crisis), the “EU leaders” do not seem to bother with the questions of the democratic accountability and legitimacy of the EU’s / eurozone’s “economic governance”. This paper tries to revisit the democratic deficit debate. Some of the contributors to the debate conceptualized the democratic deficit as an imbalance between executive and legislature. But the conceptualization of the democratic deficit applied in this paper is different. In my conceptualization, I follow an iconic phrase uttered by Abraham Lincoln: “Democracy is the government of the people, by the people, for the people”. On a more abstract level, a system of government is legitimate if those who are governed (government of) correspond to those who govern (government by). A democratic deficit occurs if a people are governed (government of the people), but they themselves do not govern.
Please read the entire publication here.
DIIS Compendium on the Danish EU Presidency: “Crisis and Renewal – Perspectives during the Danish Presidency 2012”, April 2013
The Danish Institute for International Studies has recently published a book, compiling a wide range of analyses and debate contributions from DIIS researchers which was produced when Denmark held the EU Presidency in the first half of 2012. The book provides a unique testimony to the Danish Presidency and on some of the most crucial policy areas on the EU agenda, such as austerity measures in the Eurozone periphery, reforms of the CAP, EU budget negotiations, environment and green growth etc.
The compendium is in Danish, but several of the separate publications are also available in English, including:
- Albertsen, K. B. (2012), “Europeanising Labour Migration Policies and Pursuing National Objectives”, DIIS Policy Brief. Copenhagen: Danish Institute of International Affairs.
- Daugbjerg, C. (2012), “Reforming the Common Agricultural Policy in the Shadow of the WTO”, DIIS Policy Brief. Copenhagen: Danish Institute of International Affairs.
- Hageman, S. (2012), “Money and Power: EU budget negotiations in a time of austerity”, DIIS Policy Brief. Copenhagen: Danish Institute of International Affairs.
- Maselli, I. (2012),”Flexicurity in Italy: How far is Rome from Copenhagen?”, DIIS Policy Brief, Copenhagen: Danish Institute of International Affairs.
Especially for TEPSA Members, the DIIS will be happy to provide translations of articles of particular interest.