TEPSA Background Paper “Kremlin’s ‘reactionary strategy’ towards its ‘near abroad’. The Russian Perspective on the EU’s Eastern Partnership”

DSC_0067TEPSA Background Paper “Kremlin’s ‘reactionary strategy’ towards its ‘near abroad’. The Russian Perspective on the EU’s Eastern Partnership” by Anita Sęk

The Eastern Partnership was not the first EU programme seen in Moscow as an “intrusive process”. It was the 2004 European Neighbourhood Policy that “has been challenging the Russian concept of ‘sovereign democracy’”, as stated by Vladimir Chizhov, the former deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs and current Russian Permanent Representative to the European Union. EU’s entry into Russia’s single and exclusive zone of influence – the ‘near abroad’ (ближнее зарубежье)  – has since been perceived as a battle of interests and a struggle for domination between Brussels and Moscow, which has been embodied in the recent pressure by Moscow on EaP countries, on the eve of the Eastern Partnership Summit in Vilnius scheduled for 28-29 November 2013.

With this paper Anita Sęk, TEPSA’s Marie Curie Early Stage Researcher, analyses the reasons behind the realist ‘zero-sum game’ and the ‘red-line’ approach to the ‘common neighbourhood’ of the EU and Russia, explaining Moscow’s perceptions and interests. The hypothesis is that the Russian attitude is based on a historical need of “secured spaces”, along with horror vacui  and “honour-based behaviour”.

The author believes that it is time not only for the EU/member states’ elites to face reasons for Russian Realpolitik and its consequences, but also to recognize the difference of Russian politics and discover options towards pragmatic cooperation on realistic projects in the ‘shared neighbourhood’.

Here you can read the TEPSA Background Paper December 2013.

EEAS Audit in the Eastern Neighbourhood: To What Extent Have the New Treaty Provisions Delivered? by Anita Sęk

EEAS Audit in the Eastern Neighbourhood: To What Extent Have the New Treaty Provisions Delivered?

by Anita Sęk

Documenti IAI 1310
26 November 2013
Pages 17

Here you can consult the paper.

Revised version of a paper presented at the Lisboan seminar on “The European Neighbourhood Policy and the Lisbon Treaty: What has changed?”, Rome, 22 March 2013.

Abstract
This paper aims to analyse if and to what extent provisions of the Lisbon Treaty introducing a special relationship with neighbouring countries and Common Foreign and Security Policy-related references, have delivered in strengthening EU’s presence among its Eastern neighbours. The paper will also examine EU’s capacities in decision- and policy-making towards them. The study, built on the author’s interviews and correspondence with officials from EU institutions and literature research, shows that what characterizes the European External Action Service (EEAS) and in consequence EU’s international actorness in the Eastern Neighbourhood are: (i) scarcity of staff in headquarter in Brussels, (ii) scarcity of staff in EU delegations, (iii) underrepresentation of “new Member States”, (iv) lack of esprit du corps. All of these produce various “turf battles” of intra- and inter- institutional nature on the EU-level, which lead to an extension of the decision-making process, and in consequence undermine the possible impact on the Eastern neighbours. Nevertheless, the overall coherence of EU’s external activity is improving. Challenges however remain, particularly the lack of outcomes envisaged by the EU, undermining the Union’s influential transformative role as a norms entrepreneur.

“The implementation of the CSDP”, Report for the European Parliament, July 2013

ep logoThe European Parliament within the Framework Contract requested from TEPSA organisation of a workshop “The future of the Common Security and Defence Policy”. It was held during the meeting of the Sub-Committee on Security and Defence on 10 July in Brussels. In the event participated the following experts: Jo Coelmont (Egmont Brussels), Jan Techau (Carnegie Brussels), Antonio Missiroli (EU ISS Paris) and Alessandro Marrone (IAI Rome).

Jo COELMONT shared his six comments on CSDP operations, built up on a question on how to increase the effectiveness of the EU missions. Jan TECHAU observed that the CSDPis in much better condition than its reputation suggests, and that it has created much added value for the EU. Nonetheless, it is simultaneously hugely underperformingwhen judged against the overall strategic needs of the EU. Antonio MISSIROLI presented the EUISS report on ‘Enabling the future. European military capabilities 2013 – 2025: challenges and avenues’. The EU possesses capable and effective armed forces alongside an advanced industrial and scientific base. Yet, in general it suffers from: limited awareness of emerging challenges, basic disinterest in strategic matters, segmented political and institutional landscaperegarding defence and military matters. Alessandro MARRONE addressed four issues related to the current developments of arms industry: a) a necessary clarification on what is a Defence Technological Industrial Base (DTIB), b) the on-going globalisation of national DTIB, c) the feasibility of a European integration of national DTIB and d) the challenges to such Europe an integration process.
In discussion that followed participated i.a. Maria Eleni KOPPA, MEP Rapporteur for CSDP (Greece, S&D) and Arnaud DANJEAN, MEP, Chair of Sub-Committee on Security and Defence (France, EPP).

The Report from the EP workshop on implementation of the CSDP has been published and is available here. It was prepared by Anita Sęk, EXACT Fellow.

EXACT Final Conference on EU External Action, 10-12 July, Brussels

Logo_Marie-Curie (1)Logo_EXACT blueThe Final Conference of the Marie Curie Training Network EXACT took place at the Fondation Universitaire in Brussels from 10 – 12 July 2013. The EXACT Fellows presented their research in form of a poster exhibition and feedback sessions together with their supervisors and the EXACT Visiting Scientist Prof. Brigid Laffan (University College Dublin). Furthermore, guest speakers and a roundtable with participants from the EXACT partner projects INCOOP and PEGASUS contributed to the three-day conference. All in all the draft programme foreseed three public events: The opening of the poster exhibition in the framework of a public reception and an intervention by Prof. Jolyon Howorth (University of Bath); The key note address of David O’Sullivan (Chief Operating Officer of the European External Action Service) and a reception; and  The public roundtable “The Future of EU PhD Studies”.

Here you can consult the full Programme EXACT Final Conference and here the last EXACT Newsletter.

Spring 2013 News from EXACT

EXACT Final Conference 10 – 12 July 2013, Brusselslogo EXACT

The Final Conference of the Marie Curie Training Network EXACT took place at the Fondation Universitaire in Brussels from 10 – 12 July 2013. The EXACT Fellows presented their research in form of a poster exhibition and feedback sessions together with their supervisors and the EXACT Visiting Scientist Prof. Brigid Laffan (University College Dublin). Furthermore, guest speakers and a roundtable with participants from the EXACT partner projects INCOOP and PEGASUS contributed to the three-day conference. All in all the draft programme foreseen three public events:

–       The opening of the poster exhibition in the framework of a public reception and an intervention by Prof. Jolyon Howorth (University of Bath) on July 10, 18h00;

–       The key note address of David O’Sullivan (Chief Operating Officer of the European External Action Service) and a reception on July 11, 17h00;

–       The public roundtable “The Future of EU PhD Studies” on July 12, 9h30.

For further information on the programme please visit www.exact-training.net.

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EXACT Intervision Seminar at the University of Cagliari, Italy, 14-15 June 2013

On 14-15 June six EXACT fellows – Vanessa Boas, Andrew Byrne, Niklas Helwig, Nicole Koenig, Marco Siddi and Simon Stross – cagl2participated in the EXACT Intervision Seminar at the University of Cagliari, Sardinia. EXACT Visiting Scientist Dr. Geoffrey Edwards (Cambridge University) commented on the work presented by the Fellows. The event was hosted by Dr. Christian Rossi and Dr. Gianluca Borzoni of the University of Cagliari.

The seminar provided an excellent opportunity for the EXACT Fellows to discuss draft chapters of their PhD dissertation and analyse theoretical, methodological and empirical issues. The Faculty of Political Science at Cagliari University offered a stimulating and pleasant work environment. Other members of the academic staff and local PhD students also participated in the seminar proceedings.

News from the Fellows:

Leonhard den Hertog and Simon Stroß, Coherence in EU External Relations: Concepts and Legal Rooting of an Ambiguous Term, “European Foreign Affairs Review”, Volume 18, Issue 3 (forthcoming).

(69)Anita Sęk, participation in the International Summer School THESEUS “The Future of EU Economic Governance”, 17-21.06.2013, Brussels.

Anita Sęk, presentation “Azerbaijani perspective on the European Union as a regional and global actor”, at the “New Challenges in the European Area: Young Scientist’s 1st International Baku Forum“, organized by Azerbaijan Young Scientists, Postgraduate and Masters Union (AYSPMU), in cooperation with European Council on Doctoral Students and Young Researchers Eurodoc, 20-25.05.2013, Baku, Azerbaijan.

Anita Sęk“Workshop Report: The Development of a European Defence Technological and Investment Base”, European Parliament, May 2013, Brussels.

 Marco Siddi, Russia and the forging of memory and identity in Europe, in Studia Diplomatica 65(4), 2012, pp. 77-103

Abstract. This article analyses Russia’s role in collective memory and national identity construction in France, Germany and Poland. By comparing memory discourses across the case studies and Russia, it attempts to explain why profoundly different perceptions of Russia exist in European countries and how such discourses affect prospects for the emergence of a shared European memory of the twentieth century. This work argues that the different representations of Russia in national memory discourses are one of the main factors preventing the emergence of a harmonised European collective memory. Read full article here.

Marco Siddi, authoring, editing and coordination of special issue of Meridiani Relazioni Internazionali on Putin III, one year after re-election, May 2013, available here (in Italian).

LISBOAN Workshop “The European Neighbourhood Policy after the Lisbon Treaty”, 22 March 2013, IAI, Rome

young researchersIn the LISBOAN Workshop “The European Neighbourhood Policy after the Lisbon Treaty” organised on 22 March 2013 in Instituto Affari Internazionali  IAI in Rome, coordinated by Michele Comelli (IAI), the keynote speech delivered dr Barbara Lippert from the Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik (SWP), Berlin. In the three sessions on 1. “Legal basis for the ENP and the possibility of neighbourhood agreement”, 2. “Has the Lisbon Treaty brought about more coherence to the ENP and the whole system of the EU external action?” and 3. “Does the ENP still make sense in the current geopolitical, economic and institutional context?”, took part experienced and young researchers: dr Peter Van Elsuwege, University of Ghent, Federico Casolari, University of Bologna, Hans Peter Neuhold, University of Vienna, Ettore Greco IAI, Alessandra Mignolli, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Anita Sek, Trans European Policy Studies Association (TEPSA), Brussels, Dorina Baltag, Loughborough University, Rosen Dimov, University of Istanbul, Bogdana Depo, University of Cologne and Prague, Gianni Bonvicini IAI, Mohamed Youssef Laarissa, University of Hanover, Agnes Nicolescu, European Institute of Romania, Bucharest, Zsuzsa Ludvig, Institute of World Economics, Budapest, and Nona Mikhelidze IAI.
The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP), launched by the EU on the eve of the “Big Bang” enlargement, had developed in an informal way, being based on “soft law” instruments. However, the Lisbon Treaty provides a specific legal basis for the ENP and, more in general, for the EU’s relations with neighbouring countries (art. 8 TEU). Interestingly, art. 8 TEU was placed in the Common Provisions of the Treaty on European Union, without any links neither with the article on enlargement, as it was the case in the Constitutional Treaty, nor the provisions on the EU’s external action. In addition, art. 8 TEU also provides for a new kind of agreements with neighbouring countries. Last but not least, the Lisbon Treaty has another important impact for the ENP, in that it has strengthened the High Representative, now also Vice President of the European Commission, and has brought about the creation of the European External Action Service (EEAS). As a result, while at the level of services, the ENP has been integrated within the EEAS, its political responsibility is shared between the Commissioner for (Enlargement and) ENP and the High Representative. Indeed, the Communications on the ENP issued after the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty had been drafted jointly by the two of them. The cooperation between the two has been envisaged also when it comes to the programming of the financing instruments, that is the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI), that will be renamed European Neighbourhood Instrument (ENI). According to the 26 July 2010 Council decision on the EEAS, the programming of the ENPI as well as of other external assistance instruments shall be prepared jointly by the relevant services in the EEAS and in the Commission under the responsibility of the Commissioner in the designated area and shall be submitted jointly with the High Representative for adoption by the Commission.
The publication will be available soon.

Please consult the: Programme of ENP Seminar, IAI Rome. Visit also the website of the LISBOAN programme: http://www.lisboan.net.

2013: the final year of the EXACT programme!

logo EXACT

The EXACT PhD Intervision Workshop

On 18-19 April, eight EXACT Fellows: Nicole Koenig, Niklas Helwig, Andrew Byrne, Anita Sek, James Nyomakwa-Obimpeh, Leonhard den Hertog, Merlene Gottwald and Adreas Raspotnik gathered at the University of Edinburgh for the PhD EXACT Intervision Workshop. The meeting was joined by prof. Brigid Laffan from the University College Dublin.

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Publications and presentations:

Andrew Byrne, Conflicting Visions: Liberal and Realist Conceptualisations of Transatlantic Alignment, “Transworld Working Paper” No. 12, Istituto Affari Internazionali, 25 March 2012, available here.

Bogdana Depo, The values within the ENP: shared, imposed or a matter of business? The Perspectives of the Eastern and Southern Dimensions, presentation together with Rosen Dimov (University of Istanbul), LISBOAN seminar “The European Neighbourhood Policy and the Lisbon Treaty: What has changed?”, Instituto Affari Internazionali, Rome, 22 March 2013.

Leonhard den Hertog and Ramses Wessel, EU Foreign, Security and Defence Policy: a Competence-Responsibility Gap?, in: Evans and Koutrakos (eds.), “The International Responsibility of the European Union: European and International Perspectives”, (Oxford, Hart Publishing), March 2013.

Sergio Carrera, Leonhard den Hertog and Joanna Parkin, EU migration policy after the Arab Spring: the pitfalls of Home Affairs Diplomacy, “Think Global – Act European Policy Paper”, No. 74 (CEPS & Notre Europe), February 2013.

Marlene Gottwald, A human security perspective on the future of Europe, workshop “The changing nature of human security”, organised by the Chatham House and FRIDE, Brussels. See the Agenda_ESPAS Workshop.

Miguel Haubrich SecoTheorising and tracing EU promotion of regional cooperation. The cases of Mercosur and the Western Balkans, 2013 “ISA Annual Convention”, 2-6 April, San Francisco.

Niklas Helwig, Paul Ivan und Hrant Kostanyan, The New EU Foreign Policy Architecture: Reviewing the first two years of the EEAS, Centre forNiklas European Policy Studies, 10 February 2013.

Abstract: This CEPS book examines two interrelated questions: 1) How has the European External Action Service (EEAS) functioned in the EU institutional architecture in the first two years of its existence? 2) What improvements can be made through the 2013 review and the 2014 revision of the EEAS’ mandate? The study contributes to the current debate through an in-depth examination of the EEAS’ relations with the EU member states, the European Commission, the European Parliament and its Delegations. The analysis is complemented by in-depth interviews conducted with senior officials from the relevant institutions. The authors put forward specific recommendations, organised around three basic roles that the EEAS plays in the EU’s external relations: a) leader, b) coordinator and c) information hub. See more. 

Niklas Helwig, EU foreign policy and the High Representative’s capability-expectations gap – a question of political will, in “European Foreign Affairs Review”, 18(2), 2013, pp. 235-254.

Andreas RaspotnikThe Northern Corridor, in “The Maritime Dimension of CSDP: Geostrategic Maritime Challenges and their Implications for the European Union”, European Parliament, January 2013, Brussels. The full study available here.

Anita Sęk, An Audit of the EEAS in the Eastern Neighbourhood – to what extent have the new Treaty provisions delivered?, presentation at the LISBOAN seminar “The European Neighbourhood Policy and the Lisbon Treaty: What has changed?”, Instituto Affari Internazionali, Rome, 22 March 2013.

Marco SiddiAn issue of identity? Poland’s foreign policy toward Russia, “The European Congress of the British Association for Slavonic and East European Studies (BASEES) and of the International Council for Central and East European Studies (ICCEES)”, Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge University, 5-8 April 2013.

Marco Siddi, ECPR Young Scholars School on European identity, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, 17-23 March, with participation of prominent speakers including Jeffrey Checkel, Sophie Duchesne and Michael Bruter. More information on the conference available here.

Marco Siddi, Italy-Russia relations: politics, energy and other business, in “East European Studies No. 4. Eurasian Challenges. Partnerships with Russia and other issues of the post-Soviet area”, ed. Zsuzsa Ludvig, Budapest, 2013, pp. 74-92.

European Parliament workshop’s proceedings on the Role of the European External Action Service in Consular Protection and Services for EU Citizens, January 2013

Cover website role of EEAS on consular protection

By Anita Sęk

The workshop concerning the role of the EEAS in Consular Protection and Services for EU Citizens was organised at the European Parliament in Brussels on 9 January 2013. The workshop was chaired by Elmar BROK, Chair of the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the following speakers took part: Pierre VIMONT, Executive Secretary General of the European External Action Service (EEAS); Charles HAY, Director Consular Services at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, United Kingdom; Aurora DÍAZ-RATO, Ambassador, Special Adviser at the State Secretariat for EU Affairs, Spain; and Kristi RAIK, Researcher, Finnish Institute for International Affairs (FIIA). Additional remarks were presented by Chiara ADAMO, Head of Unit Union Citizenship and Free Movement, DG Justice, European Commission; and Edit BAUER, Rapporteur from Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs Committee.

New Marie Curie EXACT Fellow!

AnitaAnita Sęk joined the Marie Curie EXACT programme as EU External Action Early Stage Researcher on 1 December 2012, having terminated her stage at the European Commission, Cabinet of Commissioner for Enlargement and ENP Stefan Fule. Till the end of 2013 she will be based in TEPSA, in Brussels. Anita likes learning new languages, she is able to communicate in English, German, next to her mother tongue Polish, as well as – though less successfully – in French, Russian, Serbo-Croat and Greek. Recently, Anita joined the Brussels female mini-football team, she also practices capoeira. She loves Orkhan Pamuk literature, dancing, travelling and photography. Learn more about Anita.

Anita Sęk

Marie Curie EXACT Researcher

Anita Sęk holds Master degrees in the EU International Relations and Diplomacy from the College of Europe, Bruges (2011/2012) and in the International Relations from the Jagiellonian University, Krakow (2006-2011). She also studied at the Warsaw University (2009/2010) and the Vienna University (2009). She gained experience as a trainee in several organisations: the European Commission (2012), European Parliament, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Poland, Polish Embassy in Moscow, the international non-profit organisation Institute for Cultural Diplomacy in Berlin, as well as the Institute of Public Affairs, a leading think tank in Poland. She is a founding-member and former President of the Board of Centre for International Initiatives and an honourable member of the International Relations Students’ Association of the Jagiellonian University.

Her research interests are: external action of the EU, Common Foreign and Security Policy, European Neighborhood Policy (particularly Eastern Partnership), international relations in Eastern Europe and Caucasus, Polish foreign policy.

 You can contact Anita Sęk  (Anita•Sek©tepsa•eu)