Strengthening European security and defence cooperation is one of the EUGS’s central aims and an area where significant progress has been made in the past two years. The EU activated permanent structured cooperation; set up a European Defence Fund; launched a mechanism for more coordination in national defence planning; strengthened its ability to plan and conduct non-executive missions; and took first steps towards increased financial burden-sharing.
A critical review of these five measures suggests that the glass is half full. The foundations of a European Defence Union have been established, but its effectiveness will depend on sustained member state engagement, an in- crease in ambition, and subsequent compliance.
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