Recent publications from the Finnish Institute of International Affairs (FIIA) – Summer 2016

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Reports

Toivo Martikainen, Katri Pynnöniemi, Sinikukka Saari & Ulkopoliittisen instituutin työryhmä: Venäjän muuttuva rooli Suomen lähialueilla

Toivo

Kristi Raik & Sinikukka Saari (eds.): Key Actors in the EU’s Eastern Neighbourhood: Competing perspectives on geostrategic tensions

Kristi Raik

Briefing Papers

Michael Haltzel: What’s Going on in the USA? Explaining the Trump phenomenon

Michael Haltzel

Mikael Wigell: China’s Advance in Latin America: Geostrategic Implications for Europe, the US, and the Region Itself

Mikael Wigell

Mika Aaltola: Cyber Attacks Go Beyond Espionage: The Strategic Logic of State-sponsored Cyber Operations in the Nordic-Baltic Region

Mika Aaltola

Toni Alaranta: The EU-Turkey Stalemate: Detecting the Root Causes of the Dysfunctional Relationship

Toni Alaranta

FIIA Comments

Arkady Moshes: Moscow’s European project is closed: “We need Russia” pleas will meet no response

Arkady Moshes & András Rácz: Ukraine, 25 years of independence: a strong nation deserves an effective state

Niklas Helwig & Tuomas Iso-Markku: A more self-assured Germany: the new white paper highlights Germany’s readiness to bolster European security and defence

Past events at the Finnish Institute of International Affairs (FIIA) – Spring/summer 2016

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How to Resolve Europe’s Multiple Crises?
30 May 2016, Finnish Institute of International Affairs (FIIA)

 

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Senior Research Fellow Kristi Raik, Foreign Minister Timo Soini and Senior Analyst at EUISS Roderick Parkes discussed Europe’s multiple crises on 20 May. The event was chaired by Director Teija Tiilikainen.

 

Photo: Mattias Lehtinen / FIIA

 

 

Kultaranta Talks
19-20 June 2016

Northern European security and defence cooperation between Finland and Sweden were the main topics of this year’s Kultaranta talks hosted by President of the Republic Sauli Niinistö on 19 and 20 June 2016. Director Teija Tiilikainen was a panelist in a discussion on European security and future.

The event was organised by the Office of the President of Finland in cooperation with FIIA.

News from the Finnish Institute of International Affairs (FIIA)

FIIA

Research grants to FIIA

FIIA has been granted external research funding while the Finnish Journal of Foreign Affairs wins an award.

A research project on critical global and regional trends that may affect Finland’s international position in the next few years has been granted €260,000. The project is led by Director Teija Tiilikainen and coordinated by Eeva Innola.

FIIA will cooperate with University of Lapland and SYKE (the Finnish Environment Institute) on another research project focusing on the Finnish chairmanship of the Arctic Council. FIIA’s share of the €180,000 grant is €55,000. Harri Mikkola and Juha Käpylä will be participating in the project.

Both projects are funded by the Government’s Analysis, Assessment and Research Activities and will last until the end of 2018.

Activities in 2015

In her opening remarks at the annual FIIA Day seminar on March 3, Director Teija Tiilikainen summarised FIIA activities in 2015. FIIA organised almost 90 seminars last year either alone or in cooperation with international or national partners. For instance, FIIA continued to cooperate with the Office of the President of the Republic of Finland in organising Kultaranta Talks in June last year.

A record number of 58 publications were released in the FIIA publication series in 2015. In addition, FIIA researchers continued to publish widely in different national and international outlets. Among well over 150 external publications were 32 peer-reviewed academic articles, 6 books (published by Ashgate and Rowman & Littlefield, for example) and two PhD dissertations.

NATO evaluation

In accordance with the Government Programme, the effects of Finland’s possible NATO membership will be assessed in connection with the preparation of a Report on Finnish Foreign and Security Policy. Director Teija Tiilikainen and member of the FIIA Board René Nyberg take part in preparing the evaluation which is expected to be completed in May. Other experts appointed by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs are Ambassador (ret.) Mats Bergqvist and François Heisbourg, Chairman of the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) and of the Geneva Centre for Security Policy.

Upcoming vacancies

As the three-year research programme period is coming to an end this year, the majority of programme director and researcher positions will be declared open later this spring. Programme director positions will be declared open on 22 April and the deadline for applications will be 6 May. Researcher positions will be open from 29 April until 20 May.

Staff News

Senior Research Fellow Sinikukka Saari is on a leave of absence until January 2019. During this period, she will be working at the Unit for Policy Planning and Research at the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland.

Michael Haltzel will return to FIIA’s Center on US Politics and Power in late April for a few weeks.

Programme Director Arkady Moshes was on a month-long visit at the Elliot School of International Relations, George Washington University, in Washington, D.C. He returned in mid-April.

Past events at the Finnish Institute of International Affairs (FIIA) – Summer 2014

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CUSPP Summer Session
August 2014

The Center for US Politics and Power (CUSPP) at FIIA organized the very first Summer Session on the topic of Nordic-Baltic Security and US Role in the Region after Ukraine in Helsinki and Tallinn in August, 2014.

The aim of the Summer Session was to provide a platform to discuss the topic from different perspectives and it gathered researchers and experts from Europe and the US. The themes included in the programme were US global rebalancing and its impact to the region, transatlantic relations and US politics, dependencies and cooperation (military and trade), regional military cooperation, NATO, cyber and flows, Arctic and the sce¬narios of insecurity. The forthcoming FIIA report on the issue will fur¬ther continue on the themes of the Summer Session.

The Summer Session is part of the agenda of the CUSPP that aims to provide a platform for the research on the US global role and US foreign and domestic policy in Finland and to strengthen CUSPP networks internationally. The Center’s visiting scholar programme not only invites scholars from the US to contribute the research focuses of the Center but also provides possibilities for its own researchers to visit the US.

Eurasian Union project

The EU’s Eastern Neighbourhood and Russia Research Programme has conducted a research project on the prospects of Eurasian integration.

The project concluded that the Eurasian Economic Union has, on paper, the potential to transform economic relations in the region and to offer an alternative ot the EU in the post-Soviet space. However, weak institutions and large asym¬metry between member states are continuing to hinder closer ties and the crisis in Ukraine has led to an increasingly hostile international environment. Hence, the union faces an uphill struggle to maintain momentum and deliver the results member states desire.

Kultaranta Talks, 8-9 June 2014, Finnish Institute of International Affairs (FIIA)

The Kultaranta Talks, a foreign policy discussion event, gathered around one hundred foreign policy experts and debaters at the President of the Republic’s summer residence at Kultaranta in Naantali on 8-9 June 2014. Among the main themes were Russia, Europe, cyber security and defence capability. The Kultaranta Talks are aimed at creating a new kind of national debating event based on open and critical consideration of Finnish for­eign and security policy. The Office of the President of the Republic of Finland organised the Talks in cooperation with FIIA.

Newest Publications from FIIA

fiiaSean P. Roberts,  Russia as an international actor: The view from Europe and the US

The hard-line approach taken by the Russian authorities following the December 2011 parliamentary election has led to growing consternation within the international community, while the return of Vladimir Putin to the post of President of the Russian Federation in May 2012 has generated largely negative evaluations of Russia’s political trajectory. But how is the Russian Federation viewed in a broader context as an actor within the international system? Does Russia play a positive or negative role on the international stage and is Russia viewed as a strategic partner or a strategic competitor by other actors, including the European Union and the United States? The material presented in this report is a symbiosis of opinions and analysis from European and US researchers and practitioners dealing with these questions, following roundtable discussions held in Finland in January 2013 and in the US in April 2013. The report highlights the main issues raised during the course of these discussions.

Juha Käpylä & Harri Mikkola, The Global Arctic: The Growing Arctic Interests of Russia, China, the United States and the European Union

With exciting economic opportunities and serious environmental challenges, the Arctic is transforming and re-emerging as a geopolitically important region. Major global players within and without the Arctic are paying greater attention to the region. While Russia is a traditional Arctic state with significant economic and security interests in the region, China, the US and the EU have also expressed their Arctic interests more explicitly. They are keen to tap into the economic potential and have a say in the way the region becomes accessed, exploited and governed. As a result, the Arctic is no longer a spatially or administratively confined region, but is instead taking its new form in the midst of contemporary global politics. The globalization and economization of the Arctic will most likely downplay environmentalism and reduce the relative influence of the indigenous people and small Arctic states in Arctic affairs. Arctic governance is also likely to turn more complex and complicated as the economic and political stakes are raised.

Johanna Jacobsson, Towards an integrated Transatlantic market: The EU and the United States open ­politically charged negotiations on free trade

On 14 June the European Commission was granted the mandate to launch negotiations on a comprehensive trade and investment agreement with the United States. Reaching a deal is vital for both parties but a successful outcome risks being compromised by political sensitivities on both sides of the Atlantic.

FIIA Publications – Spring 2013

FIIA Briefing PapersFinland

Harri Mikkola & Juha KäpyläArctic economic potential: The need for a comprehensive and risk-aware understanding of Arctic dynamics

The melting of the Arctic is expected to offer prospects for maritime transport and hydrocarbon exploitation that could potentially create an Arctic economic boom.

Patrick MatschossThe German energy transition: Status, challenges and the Finnish perspective

The rising shares of variable renewable energy raise the flexibility requirements of the energy system to ensure network reliability. The extension of the electricity grid is a key factor as better cross-regional integration evens out the variability and provides greater access to dispatchable capacities and energy storage, for example.

Teemu Sinkkonen, Counterterrorism in external action: The EU’s toolbox for responding to terrorism abroad

The Algerian hostage incident in January 2013 was a good example of the type of terrorism that Europeans are likely to face at the moment: the target was a multinational energy plant in the European neighbourhood, the motives were both political and economic, and the perpetrators were part of a global ideology, but acted in their local interests.

Timo BehrMika Aaltola & Erik BrattbergMaritime Security in a multipolar world: Towards an EU Strategy for the Maritime Commons

Recent years have seen a transformation of the global maritime security environment, driven among other things by the diffusion of maritime power, great power competition, the “territorialisation” of the seas, the rise of maritime non-state actors, changes in maritime geography, and a race to extract maritime resources.

Mikael Wigell & Mauricio Romero, Transatlantic drug trade: Europe, Latin America and the need to strengthen anti-narcotics cooperation

The cocaine business has changed significantly in recent years. Once concentrated in Colombia, it has now expanded to the entire Latin American region with Brazil, Mexico, Central America, and Venezuela having become central corridors for the illegal traffic.

The FIIA has appointed Programme Directors for the period 2014—2016

Mika Aaltola, Juha Jokela and Arkady Moshes will continue in their current positions in the next three-year period from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2016.

Dr Mika Aaltola leads the Global Security Research Programme, which focuses on global trajectories of security that have significance for the European and Finnish security environments. Dr Aaltola received his doctoral degree from the University of Tampere and has worked at the University of Minnesota as a Visiting Professor. In his research, Dr Aaltola has focused for instance on US domestic and foreign policy and great power relations.

Dr Juha Jokela leads the European Union Research Programme, which focuses on the EU’s external relations, institutional development and economy. Dr Jokela received his doctorate from the University of Bristol and has previously worked e.g. as Director of the University of Helsinki Network for European Studies. Dr Jokela’s research has focused on the EU’s foreign and security policy among other things.

Dr Arkady Moshes leads the EU’s Eastern Neighbourhood and Russia Research Programme which focuses especially on Russian domestic and foreign policy. Dr Moshes received his doctorate from the Institute of Europe of the Russian Academy of Sciences and he has published extensively on issues such as Russia-EU relations and Ukrainian and Belarusian domestic and foreign policy.

The principal responsibility of the Programme Directors is to lead their research programme and to take part in the planning of the Institute’s research activities. In addition, Programme Directors have their individual research agendas.

Conference “Putin 3.0 One Year On: What has changed in Russia?”

Putin 3.0 One Year On: What has changed in Russia? 15.4.2013, The Parliament Annex Auditorium, Helsinki, Finlandfiia photo

The Finnish Institute of International Affairs in cooperation with the Centre for EU-Russia Studies (University of Tartu) and Chatham House (UK) held an international conference aimed at taking stock of Russian politics a year after the return of Putin. Researchers from Russia and Europe analysed key developments in Russia’s domestic politics, defence and security and foreign policy to determine what, if anything, has changed in Russia over the past 12 months.

Summary of the conference and audio recordings of presentations available here.

News from the Finnish Institute of International Affairs, Spring 2013

JSFound.The Jane and Aatos Erkko Foundation has granted significant funding for FIIA’s US-related research for the period 2013 – 2016. Thanks to a sum of 1.2 million euros, FIIA will be able to establish a Centre for US Politics and Power and thereby strengthen its research on the US’s global role and its expertise on US domestic and foreign policy. FIIA will launch a professor-level exchange programme with the distinguished Center for Transatlantic Relations (CTR) at Johns Hopkins University. Besides conducting research on transatlantic relations and the US’s role in global politics and economy, FIIA and CTR will organise seminars, conferences and an annual summer school for young scholars in either Helsinki or Washington DC.

At the 6th annual FIIA Day on March 6, Minister of Defence of Finland Carl Haglund gave a speech on Nordic cooperation and the “Nordic Model”. It was followed by a panel discussion before a reception was held at FIIA’s premises. An audio recording of Haglund’s speech is available via FIIA’s website.

Staff News

Tuomas Iso-Markku has joined the EU programme as a researcher. He focuses on Common Foreign and Security Policy from a small state perspective.

In April, Johanna Jacobsson will join the EU programme as a Visiting Researcher to finish her Academy-funded PhD research on Economic Integration and Labour Markets Integration Agreements.

Head of Russian Department at Warsaw-based Centre for Eastern Studies Marek Menkiszak will come to a two-month visit to FIIA in April. He will focus on Russian policy on Syria during his stay at FIIA.

Researcher Touko Piiparinen has been granted the title of docent by the University of Helsinki.

As the three-year programme period comes to an end in December 2013, researcher positions will be declared vacant later this spring.

Spring 2013 Publications from the Finnish Institute of International Affairs

External publicationsFinland

Institute Researchers Timo Behr, Jyrki Kallio, Mika Aaltola, Charly Salonius-Pasternak and Coordinator Maija Salonen recently co-authored a European Parliament report ‘The maritime dimension of CSDP: Geostrategic maritime challenges and their implications for the European Union’.

FIIA Researcher Kristi Raik and the European Policy Centre’s Rosa Balfour have co-edited a publication ‘The European External Action Service and National Diplomacies’ which was published in the EPC Issue Paper series.

The Finnish Journal of Foreign Affairs

The latest issue of the Finnish Journal of Foreign Affairs (Ulkopolitiikka-lehti) came out in early March. This issue focuses on the search for new ideas regarding global democracy as well as ways to enhance the democratic legitimacy of the European Union in crisis. In addition, the issue takes a look at how the Kurds are about to re-draw some of the boundaries in the Middle East, and tries to help the Nordic countries reclaim their lost glory.

Recent publications

All FIIA publications can be downloaded from the Institute’s website.

FIIA Briefing Papers

Antto Vihma: The shale gas boom: The global implications of the rise of unconventional fossil energy

Abstract: The shale gas boom, the recent and rapid commercialization of large-scale shale gas production, has made the US self-sufficient in natural gas and has considerable export potential. Gas is set to become the biggest fuel in the US energy mix and has helped the US to curb its greenhouse gas emissions. Cheap gas is also reinforcing the trend of rising industry investment in the US. The impacts of the US shale gas boom are already being felt in Europe and Asia, for example via cheaper coal. The ‘coal renaissance’ in Europe can still be avoided either by a carbon price or other forms of regulation. Restoring the ability of the European Emissions Trading System to guide investments is the best solution, and can be done simply by setting an adequate emissions cap for the post-2020 period. Globally, the rise of unconventional fossil energy sources means that the energy markets of the coming decades will move towards a more competitive and fragmented order, in which many energy importing countries also utilize significant domestic resources, and are able to balance their imports with regional exporters and the major global players. These developments point to a weakening Russian grip on the European gas market, and problems for Russian export revenues in general. Other states lag far behind the US in shale gas technology, but will try to replicate the US experiment, while Russia will strive to prevent this from happening in its neighbourhood.

Harri Mikkola, Juha Anteroinen & Ville Lauttamäki: The changing European defence market: Will the new European defence market legislation be a game-changer for Finland?

Abstract: The European defence industrial base is transforming. The changes in the European defence market legislation, the decrease in defence materiel demand and changing defence requirements are redefining the industry in a way that has not been seen in decades. The new European legislation in particular poses serious challenges for the Finnish defence industry, including the national market opening and the diminishing possibility for offset arrangements. It is likely that the major European states are trying to protect their own defence industrial base. The future of the Finnish defence industry will be determined by whether the European market opens up in the first place, in part or in its entirety. There is no going back to the time preceding the new legislation. It is crucial for the Finnish defence industry to find and utilize new market opportunities. Networking with the European system integrators and sub-contracting chains will be of paramount importance.

Juha Jokela: David Cameron’s European policy: Britain sidelined by Euroscepticism and the economic crisis

Abstract: Deeply rooted Euroscepticism within some quarters of the British Conservative Party was initially thought to be balanced by the formation of a coalition government with the pro-European Liberal Democrats.

These wishes soon proved to be premature and the British government led by the Conservatives has emerged as a very difficult partner in many fields of EU policy. Prime Minister David Cameron’s weakened support, the European economic crisis and EMU reforms have geared the British European policy towards an increasing awkwardness vis-à-vis its key European partners and prompted a debate on the re-negotiation of Britain’s relationship with the EU. Relatedly, Britain’s position in the EU has weakened significantly. Mr Cameron’s recent speech attempts to re-establish some degree of British authority in the EU, and in the event that he fails, to further distance Britain from the EU. It is uncertain whether the current trend will prevail after the next British general election, slated to be held in May 2015 at the latest.

Mikael Mattlin: Kiinan kasvava vaikutusvalta: Tuovatko taloussuhteet Kiinalle poliittista vipuvartta?

Katri Pynnöniemi: Russia’s defence reform: Assessing the real ‘Serdyukov heritage’

Abstract: The Russian Armed Forces are undergoing a long and expensive reform, which aims at preparing the country to new security threats. The reforms were initiated during the term of the former minister of defence, Anatoly Serdyukov. His dismissal in November 2012 initiated a debate on the future of the reforms. As of yet, the changes made by the new minister of defence Sergei Shoigu are corrections to the existing plan, and not an overall revision of its contours. The most pronounced difference is a shift in favour of domestic military industry.In its current condition, Russia’s defence industry is not able to absorb the major increase in military spending in an efficient manner. From the technological and managerial perspectives, most of the military-industrial enterprises function far below the international average.

FIIA Comments

Hanna Ojanen: Nato-jäsenyys ei ole ihmelääke: Liittoutumisen jälkeenkin Suomelta edellytettäisiin puolustusyhteistyön lisäämistä Pohjoismaiden ja EU:n kanssa

Jyrki Kallio: China in the Year of the Snake: The Chinese remember past humiliations and dream of national rejuvenation

All things bright and beautiful are being promised to the Chinese living under the new party leadership. But is what is good for China also good for the world? The Chinese rhetoric has a victim mentality flavour, and carries the risk that compensating for one’s past inferiority may lead to extreme actions today.

Kristi Raik & Teemu Rantanen: Managing the decline of European diplomacy: More burden-sharing in the EU is needed to counter the cuts in national foreign services

Due to the economic crisis and changes in the international system, European foreign services are facing budget cuts and need to re-focus their functions. They should utilize the potential for burden-sharing with the European External Action Service (EEAS) and its network of 141 EU Delegations.

Arkady Moshes: Saving Putin’s system: Survival tactics become the strategy

Vladimir Putin’s third term as Russia’s president allows us to draw parallels with the USSR under the leadership of Yuri Andropov 30 years ago. Political rights are being suppressed, yet Putin has to tread carefully so as not to step on the toes of the elites. Any ideas of modernizing Russia seem to have been abandoned.

Charly Salonius-Pasternak: Swedish defence illusions are crumbling: The changes in Swedish defence policy necessitate a debate about NATO prior to the Finnish parliamentary elections in 2015

The tornado-like debate in Sweden about the country’s armed forces and defence policy has led to the disintegration of the very cornerstones of Swedish defence policy. Finland should prepare for the possibility of Sweden making rapid changes to its security policy.

Bart Gaens: Japan’s troublesome territory: The entangled history of the three island disputes complicates finding a solution to any of them

Japan has failed to achieve progress in resolving its territorial disputes. The historical legacy and the role of the US, local perceptions of Japan’s wartime past, and the interrelated and contingent nature of the disputes all serve to compound the problem.

Mikael Wigell: Global drug policy is ripe for reform: The emphasis should be on harm reduction instead of law enforcement

The global “war on drugs” has reached a turning point. The EU should seize the opportunity to promote an alternative approach to global drug control. Harm reduction policies need to be extended, while not expecting legalization to solve everything.

Marikki Stocchetti: The UN Blueprint for the Post-2015 Development Agenda: Enabling optimism or true transformation?

The UN responds to the global crisis with a radical proposal. Instead of a traditional donor-recipient approach, it focuses on policy coherence and calls for governments and the private sector to enable global reform. In the absence of strong political commitment, the question remains as to what extent it will succeed.

FIIA granted significant fundings for research

1. Jane and Aatos Erkko Foundation has granted significant funding for FIIA’s US-related researchJSFound. for 2013–2016. With a sum of 1.2 million euros FIIA will strengthen its research on US global role and its expertise on US domestic and foreign policy which is already exceptional in Finland.

FIIA will launch a professor-level exchange programme with the distinguished Johns Hopkins University’s Center for Transatlantic Relations (CTR). Besides conducting research on transatlantic relations and US role in global politics and economy, FIIA and CTR will organize seminars, conferences and an annual summer school for young scholars in Helsinki or Washington DC.

With the support of Jane and Aatos Erkko Foundation, FIIA will have improved resources to produce high-level topical US-related research for the academic community, political decision-makers and public debate.

Jane and Aatos Erkko Foundation was established in 2002 to support high-level international research, arts and culture.

2. The Jane and Aatos Erkko Foundation has granted 530000 euros for a research project focusing on EU’s future direction after the economic crisis. The study will evaluate EU’s development trends and their implications for the EU and Finland. The research project seeks to support political decision-making as well as public debate.

The project is carried out by the Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA) and the Finnish Institute of International Affairs (FIIA) and researchers from both organisations will take part in the project. The study will be finished by the summer of 2014. The project is led by Research Director Markku Kotilainen (ETLA) and Director Teija Tiilikainen (FIIA).

3. The Finnish Scientific Advisory Board for Defense (MATINE) and National Emergency Supply Agency (NESA) have granted research funding for two interrelated research projects by the Finnish Institute of International Affairs. These research projects will be carried out between 1 January 2013 and 31 January 2014 in collaboration with the School of Management (International Relations), University of Tampere.

The MATINE funded research project will analyse the international strategic shift from territorial geopolitics towards the geopolitics of the global commons – sea, sky, space and cyber domain — and the implications of this transformation for Finland. A special emphasis of the project is on the global marine environment as an essential feature of the Finnish security policy.

The NESA funded research project will analyse the aspects and possibilities of national security of supply in a world that is increasingly global, inter-connected but also at the same time fragmented, as well as the implications that the increased and multifaceted interdependency brings about for national security of supply.

The aim of the research projects is to increase Finnish politico-strategic understanding of the changing trends in global security landscape, to analyse the transformation of Finnish maritime environment, and to reflect on the challenges of national security of supply.

The projects are led by Dr. Mika Aaltola, Director of the Global Security Research Programme at FIIA.

Developments in the FIIA, autumn 2012

Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs Song Tao visited FIIA

Dr. Song Tao, Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of People’s Republic of China, participated in a high-level academic seminar at FIIA on 29 October. Vice Minister’s talk on EU-China relations was followed by a discussion.

FIIA Vice_Minister_of_Foreign_Affairs_of_People's_Republic_of_China_Song_Tao

Kone Foundation grants funding for the Eilen Archive

Kone Foundation has granted 25.000€ for the further development of Eilen Archive, the online archive of Finnish Foreign Policy. At the moment, the archive consists of speeches related to Finnish foreign policy and chronology detailing the most significant events in Finnish foreign policy since 1973.

4th German-Nordic-Baltic Forum

On 27-28 September, the fourth German-Nordic-Baltic Forum took place. The conference was entitled “EU Responses to external challenges as seen from Germany, Poland, Nordic and Baltic countries and the EU neighbourhood” and it led to a most fruitful exchange of ideas and opinions among the stakeholders of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). The Forum took place at the premises of FIIA in Helsinki and was organised by the Institut für Europäische Politik (IEP) in cooperation with FIIA, with generous support from the German Federal Foreign Office and the Finnish Ministry for Foreign Affairs.

Staff News

In February-March, Dr. Anaïs Marin will take part in a visiting researcher exchange with the Warsaw-based Center for Eastern Studies (OSW). During her 2-month stay at OSW, Marin will collaborate with researchers from the Russian department as well as her homologue Belarus desk.

The Student Union of University of Helsinki (HYY) has awarded the prize for the Best International Teacher of the Year 2012 to Bart Gaens. Dr. Gaens is a Docent of Japanese Studies at the University of Helsinki and a researcher in FIIA’s Global Security Programme.

FIIA is now recruiting!

The Finnish Institute of International Affairs is now seeking RESEARCHERS for the programme period of 1.1.2014-31.12.2016 to the following research programmes: 

The European Union Research Programme. The programme focuses on the EU’s main trends of development, the external relations of the Union, and its political system and economy. Nordic policies in a changing global environment are another focus of the programme.

The EU’s Eastern Neighbourhood and Russia Research Programme. The programme focuses on Russia’s foreign and security policy, the country’s internal political development, and the special characteristics of its political system. Another focus area is the foreign policy and international position of the partner countries of the EU’s Eastern Partnership (Ukraine, Georgia, Belarus, and Moldova among others).

The Global Security Research Programme. The programme focuses on the global power structure and the development of global governanceinternational energy and climate policy, and European security policy and its key institutions. The geopolitical emphasis of the research is on the United States, China, and the emerging powers.

The study of Arctic politics will be incorporated into one of the Institute’s research programmes, once the focus of this field of research has been further defined.

Applications are welcome from researchers in different stages of their research careers, both at doctoral and master’s levels. Successful performance in this position requires expertise in the subject area of the research programme, and readiness to work in a think-tank type community of researchers. An excellent disposition for teamwork and good English skills are advantages.

Applications are to be written in English. They must be addressed to the Director of the Institute and submitted to the Finnish Institute of International Affairs, PO Box 400, FI-00161 Helsinki, Finland (street address Kruunuvuorenkatu 4, Helsinki). Applications may also be submitted by e-mail to kirjaamo©fiia•fi  (kirjaamo©fiia•fi)  . The final deadline for applications is 23 May 2013, 4:15 p.m. Finnish time. The application must specify which research programme is being applied for. Applications will not be returned.

Applications should include a CV (max. 5 pages) specifying the principal scientific qualifications and achievements and other evidence of competence and distinctions, and a separate list of publications. A preliminary research plan is also requested, indicating the research work that the applicant plans to carry out during the programme period.  

Further details of the research work and other FIIA activities are available on our website at www.fiia.fi. For more information on the duties of researchers in the European Union Research Programme and in the Global Security Research Programme, please contact Institute Director Teija Tiilikainen, tel. +358 9 432 7701 on 15 May at 10-11 a.m. or  21 May at 10.30-12 a.m., or e-mail teija•tiilikainen©fiia•fi  (teija•tiilikainen©fiia•fi)  . For more information on the duties of researchers in the EU’s Eastern Neighbourhood and Russia Research Programme, please contact Programme Director Arkady Moshes, tel. +358 9 432 7750 on 15 May at 10-12 a.m. or 22 May at 10-12 a.m., or e-mail arkady•moshes©fiia•fi  (arkady•moshes©fiia•fi)  .

FIIA sth nice

News from the Finnish Institute of International Affairs (FIIA)

FIIA

 

New Pact for Europe

FIIA held the first meeting of the Finnish National Reflection Group of the New Pact for Europe project on 16 June. The project promotes EU-wide public debate about Europe’s future and has been initiated and supported by an international consortium of European foundations. FIIA plans the project’s activities in Finland.

A transnational dialogue with Belgian reflection group and a seminar focusing on the state of the union will take place in Helsinki in the autumn.

Programme directors appointed for 2017-2019

Mika Aaltola, Juha Jokela and Arkady Moshes will continue in their current positions in the next 3-year period from 1 January 2017 to 31 December 2019.

Dr Mika Aaltola leads the Global Security Research Programme, which focuses on global trajectories of security that have significance for the European and Finnish security environments. Dr Aaltola received his doctoral degree from the University of Tampere and has worked at the University of Minnesota as a Visiting Professor. In his research, Dr Aaltola has focused for instance on US domestic and foreign policy and great power relations.

Dr Juha Jokela leads the European Union Research Programme, which focuses on the EU’s external relations and institutional development. Dr Jokela received his doctorate from the University of Bristol and has previously worked e.g. as Director of the University of Helsinki Network for European Studies. Dr Jokela’s research has focused on the EU’s foreign and security policy among other things. He is also a TEPSA Board Member.

Dr Arkady Moshes leads the EU’s Eastern Neighbourhood and Russia Research Programme which focuses especially on Russian domestic and foreign policy. Dr Moshes received his doctorate from the Institute of Europe of the Russian Academy of Sciences and he has published extensively on issues such as Russia-EU relations and Ukrainian and Belarusian domestic and foreign policy.

The principal responsibility of the programme directors is to lead their research programme and to take part in the planning of the Institute’s research activities. In addition, programme directors have their individual research agendas.

NATO evaluation

In accordance with the Government Programme, the effects of Finland’s possible NATO membership were assessed in connection with the preparation of a Report on Finnish Foreign and Security Policy.

Director Teija Tiilikainen and member of the FIIA Board René Nyberg took part in preparing the evaluation which was submitted to Minister for Foreign Affairs Timo Soini on 29 April 2016. Other experts appointed by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs were Ambassador (ret.) Mats Bergqvist and François Heisbourg, Chairman of the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) and of the Geneva Centre for Security Policy.

Activities in 2016

By the end of May, FIIA researchers published 15 peer-reviewed academic articles (including journals such as International Affairs, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism and the International Spectator), two books, one edited journal issue and a total of 57 publications for the professional audiences or the general public.

FIIA researchers gave ten oral and/or written statements to the parliamentary committees and 128 presentations at events which were not organised by FIIA.

Staff News

Leo Michel, an expert on US defence and security policy, will join FIIA’s Center on US Politics and Power in the framework of Jane and Aatos Erkko Foundation funding in mid-August for three months.

Ryhor Nizhnikau​ will join the NRUS programme in the beginning of August. His research interests include EU policies in the post-Soviet area, European Neighbourhood Policy, Russia’s foreign policy.

FIIA Publications: Reports, Working Papers, Briefing Papers and Comments, February 2013

FIIA Reports 35-36

Katri Pynnöniemi (ed.): Russian critical infrastructures: Vulnerabilities and policies

The Russian policy on critical infrastructure protection was outlined in the early 2000s and has been consolidated in recent years as a part of the national security strategy. It is built upon the civil defence system of the Soviet era, a system that has been modernized under the auspices of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia.

The Russian policies on critical infrastructure protection (CIP) are evolving against a background composed of an uneasy combination of factors: the degeneration of infrastructures critical for the country’s economic and social development, and the de-legitimization of political institutions responsible for protecting ‘population’ and ‘territory’. The recent major catastrophes in Russia, the forest fires in 2010 in particular, have become examples of political events that offer a point of reference for the current regime’s failure to uphold its promises of ‘order and stability’.

Global climate change and the extraction of natural resources in the Arctic region are regarded as both a challenge and an opportunity for Russia. In Russian and European discussions, the Northern Sea Route is usually viewed in terms of opportunity, as it will form one of the major corridors of the global commercial flows. The extraction of oil and gas reserves in the Arctic is a long-term project that has intensified in recent years, although the pace of development has slowed down of late. However, it is generally acknowledged that the ‘opening of the new northern frontier’ is anything but simple. Climate change, and the possible melting of the Russian permafrost resulting from it, poses a real challenge that adds an entirely new dimension to the notion of ‘critical infrastructures’.

Rosa Balfour & Kristi Raik: Equipping the European Union for the 21st century: National diplomacies, the European External Action Service and the making of EU foreign policy

European foreign policy is at a complicated crossroads. The European model is challenged by changing patterns of global power and interdependence, and the economic crisis is producing a backlash on the integration project. National foreign services are under the dual pressure of the economic crisis and an overall decline in the importance of traditional diplomacy, while the implementation of the Lisbon Treaty and the creation of the European External Action Service (EEAS) are supposed to stimulate an internal logic towards more EU integration and burden-sharing in foreign policy.

This report asks how to equipe European foreign policy for the 21st century. What kind of diplomatic system will be at the service of European foreign policy, forging together EU and national elements? How are the EEAS and national diplomacies going to find a modus vivendi and a new division of labour?

The authors argue that the EEAS needs to be at the centre of an emerging EU system of diplomacy, shaping it and not just being shaped by others, and creating a new sense of unity. At the same time, it is essential for the legitimacy and effectiveness of European diplomacy that the EEAS interacts smoothly with national foreign services.

FIIA Working Papers

Timo Behr & Aaretti Siitonen: Building bridges or digging trenches? Civil society engagement after the Arab Spring

When seeking to engage and assist Arab civil society, western donors are faced with several broad challenges in the new regional context. First and foremost, they will have to avoid doing anything that could deepen the growing divisions among different segments of Arab civil society.

Second, donors ought to encourage an effective and balanced relationship between state institutions and civil society. While before the revolutions many Arab countries suffered from a strong and autocratic state, today state weakness has become an equally great challenge.

Third, donors will have to find a way to engage with the new actors, organizations and social movements that have been at the forefront of the Arab Spring uprisings. To engage with some of these actors will be challenging given their non-hierarchical organizational structures, virtual membership, unclear legal position, and sometimes undefined goals.

Finally, donors will have to tread carefully in the highly sensitive new operating environment in the Arab transition countries. In order to regain trust with state institutions and civil society actors, donor engagement needs to build on national development strategies and local needs assessments.

Foreign donors, of course, can only do so much in order to support the development of a liberal and pluralistic civil society in the Arab world. Far more important than effective and well-designed development projects is the ability of different segments of Arab civil society to reconcile their differences and to endorse diversity. In order to support this process, donors will have to exercise patience and will have to avoid actions that contribute to further social polarization. To this end, sending the right political message will often be just as important as well-designed projects.

Bart Gaens: Political change in Myanmar: Filtering the murky waters of “disciplined democracy”

The recent transformation in Myanmar has brushed up the country’s international status and image, and Western and Asian countries alike are eager to reap the benefits of the ongoing changes, but the economy and financial sectors are in dire need of reform.

In order to increase the awareness for further reforms, Western input is vital. Given the fact that the EU has always been a strong economic player in Myanmar and in East Asia in general, it is in a position to offer important incentives for further change by increasing development aid, rewarding gradual political reform, and investing in joint ventures while taking into account social responsibilities.

The greatest challenge likely lies in Myanmar’s continuing ethnic tensions. Here the EU can offer expertise on conflict mediation and capacity-building, acting as a “middle power” or regional stabilizer.

In spite of these remaining challenges, the ongoing gradual reforms are more than a cosmetic contrivance for Western consumption, and are likely to continue. Current key actors in the ruling USDP party have been groomed for a future role as civilian leaders in the “discipline-flourishing democracy”, and are reform-minded. The national elections in 2015 will reveal to what extent the ruling elite is genuinely dedicated to further democratization.

True democracy in the Western sense will require substantial changes in the constitution. This, however, is impossible without the support of the military and will therefore likely be a lengthy process.

FIIA Briefing Papers 120-121

Hanna Ojanen: EU etsii uskottavuutta: Kannattaako EU:n turvallisuusstrategiaa uudistaa?

Charly Salonius-Pasternak: Carving out his place in history: What challenges will Barack Obama tackle in his second term?

As he begins his second term, President Barack Obama’s place in history is assured. A successful second term would set him on the path to becoming one of the most highly regarded presidents in US history.

Domestic politics will continue to be Obama’s focus during his second term. He will oversee the implementation of his signature first-term accomplishments, and seek additional policy changes in how the US approaches immigration and climate change.

President Obama’s second-term foreign policy team will continue the Pivot to Asia, while refining the emerging Obama Doctrine. The use of drones, Special Forces and cyber weapons will continue, as lower-cost tools to directly address threats to US national security.

Europe must take far more responsibility for its defence and regional security, for its relationship with neighbours in the east and the south, and the EU should strive to achieve a Transatlantic Free Trade Area, while President Obama remains in office.

FIIA Comments

Vadim Kononenko: The EU and Russia cease to be a priority for each other: The squabble over WTO membership reveals the defunct state of the strategic partnership

The EU-Russia strategic partnership has had its ups and downs but is currently facing a very different challenge. Despite many arguments, Brussels and Moscow never doubted the overall significance of their relationship. However, at the present time, they are evidently less interested in treating each other as priority partners.

Sean Roberts: The Russian adoption ban fits the Putin agenda: The logic of the Dima Yakovlev law is inevitable but short-sighted

By banning US citizens from adopting Russian orphans, the Putin administration is attempting to deflect attention away from corruption issues and utilise anti-American sentiment to discredit opponents. But these latest efforts at manipulating public opinion may have unintended consequences.