The recent changes in European security and defence policy are reflected in its security strategy, in the plans to produce and coordinate capabilities, as well as in the use of the EU’s treaty-based competences.
The focus of the security and defence policy has shifted from external operations closer to the Union’s own borders and territory.
The Commission’s policies in the establishment of a European defence technological and industrial base, and in promoting the production of joint capabilities, have the potential to become a unifying agenda for the member states, as well as the EU and NATO.
The provision of common capabilities will be precipitated through more effective joint planning and coordination; this might also include the use of the permanent structured cooperation (PESCO).
Along with the implementation of its new Global Strategy, the EU is faced with the question of dealing with its own responsibility for the protection of the Union also by military means.