“A Gently Slopped Leadership: Parliamentary Support for Presidents in France”, Damien Lecomte and Olivier Rozenberg (Sciences Po CEE, France)

Four institutional features such as confidence vote, electoral system, candidate nomination, and decree power can affect the degree of party discipline in France. Other than four institutional factors, this chapter also asserts that three contextual factors such as the popular support for the president, the ideological cohesiveness of the majority, and the majority micromanagement can affect the president’s ability to steer the legislative agenda. In France, the majority of presidents have experienced defections of partisan members who have different preferences or stances in conflict with theirs.

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