TEPSA has coordinated a study for the European Parliament’s Special Committee on Foreign Interference in all Democratic Processes in the European Union, including Disinformation (INGE), authored by Mikael WIGELL, Programme Director, Global Security Programme, Finnish Institute of International Affairs (FIIA), Harri MIKKOLA, Leading Research Fellow, Global Security Programme, Finnish Institute of International Affairs (FIIA), and Tapio JUNTUNEN, University Instructor, Master’s Degree Programme in Security and Safety Management (SAFER), Tampere University, on “Best Practives in the whole-of-society approach in countering hybrid threats”.
Over recent years, the European Union has increased efforts to strengthen its resilience to hybrid threats. A model of preparedness based on the notions of ‘whole-of-society’, ‘whole-of-government’ and ‘societal resilience’ has gained ground in the EU’s policy work. Although some progress has been made, many obstacles and challenges remain. The EU needs to address conceptual questions involved with the mapping of hybrid threats to facilitate targeted and effective countermeasures, as well as initiatives to improve societal resilience. Although the EU recognises the strategic value of resilience, the concept’s precise meaning and level of added value remain vague. Its exact relationship to national preparedness and hybrid threats, as well as the whole-of-society approach requires clarification. In addition to addressing these issues, this study analyses some best practices from the whole-of-society approach by examining action taken by Finland, Sweden and Australia in this regard. The study also provides recommendations for further actions.