“Borders: A Geo-historical Analysis of a Human Construct”, Paolo Bravo (IAI, Italy) 

While European integration and globalisation led to a gradual loosening of the concept of borders between the 1980s and the early 2000s, since the economic crisis of 2008 this concept has resurfaced in international debates. The return of armed conflict to the European continent, together with the still ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, are two examples of challenges that foreshadow a new era of global polarisation and the weakening of concepts such as multilateralism and international cooperation, elements that also touch on the concept of borders.

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