There are two main interlinked conundrums when defining the reasons underlying the lack of coherent policymaking in view of an external challenge, First, there are stark differences between EU member states as regards common policies. When devising policies for Russia or Turkey, for instance, not all member states have the same interests at stake. The divergences between member states when it comes to history, geography, foreign-policy making, cultures and interests are hard to bridge. It is also widely accepted that in a policy area such as foreign and security policy, where competence corresponds to each member state, they all want to call the shots. They can only be convinced to act in harmony while facing external challenges under the motto ‘stronger together’.
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