If China has become more active in restructuring economic governance, it is also increasingly investing in security governance. In particular, China’s opposition to the alliance system is official and clearer, year after year, since 2013. China is unhappy with the current security governance architecture and has the political determination, under Xi Jinping, to restructure it in a post-alliance direction. It aims to do so step-by-step in the coming decades with the help, first and foremost, of countries who are not part of the US-led alliance system –such as Russia– but also of security allies and partners of the US, who are most welcome to join China’s informal ‘circle of friends’. A blurred polarisation of security ties may develop as a result.
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