“European Indo-Pacific Strategies: Convergent Thinking and Shared Limitations”, Mario Esteban and Ugo Armanini (Elcano, Spain)

The Indo-Pacific guidelines issued by France, Germany and the Netherlands reflect their adaptation to global economic and power shifts that have made the region crucial for European economic and security interests, for the global balance of power and for the multilateral agenda. Faced with the uncertain maintenance of a benign regional hegemony and the challenges posed by China’s increasing influence and assertiveness, their guidelines offer a blueprint for an autonomous European approach, with the core objective to preserve an inclusive, rules-based and multilateral Indo-Pacific order. France, Germany and the Netherlands have issued strategic papers on the Indo-Pacific that could serve as an inspiration for other EU member states and for the development of a common EU strategy towards the region.

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