“From ‘Unidentified Political Object’ to European Democracy”, Jaap Hoeksma (The Federal Trust, United Kingdom)

This essay aims to demonstrate that the EU has outgrown its notorious democratic deficit by applying the constitutional principles of democracy and the rule of law to an international organisation. It draws attention to the far-reaching implications of the recent verdicts of the EU Court of Justice (ECJ) about the conditionality mechanism with respect to the democratic identity of the European Union. These verdicts show that the EU has abandoned the Westphalian system of International Relations and has become the first international organisation since the emergence of the Modern State System to have evolved to a transnational democracy.

Read more here.