“Geopolitics of the energy transition: Energy security, new dependencies and critical raw materials. Old wine in new bottles for the EU?”, Álvaro Rangel Hernández (College of Europe, Bruges)

This paper examines the process of the European Union’s energy transition. Although the energy transition would bring winners and losers, it also would contribute to a more balanced and less conflictual geopolitical map. The EU is in a favourable position to benefit from this process, reducing its dependency on external supply and enhancing its energy security, with the inherent geopolitical dividends this would bring. Such benefits would be conditional on further progress in key areas, in line with the goals of the Paris Agreement and the European Green Deal.

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