“Germany’s Zeitenwende and the Future of European Security”, Pia Fuhrhop (IAI, Italy) 

When German chancellor Olaf Scholz introduced the term Zeitenwende (literally, “historical turning point”) in his speech three days after the Russian invasion of Ukraine, it was primarily intended to describe the new security situation in Europe. According to the German chancellor, Russia’s blatant and brutal war of aggression was a clear breach of the fundamental norms governing the post-war European security architecture. Denying Russian President Vladimir Putin the ability to turn his imperial dreams into reality required a new focus on economic independence and territorial defence “to secure our freedom, our democracy and our prosperity”.  

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