Transitional justice refers to the art of pacifying societies in the aftermath of violent periods – be it dictatorship, civil wars, or even genocide. International organizations and government advisors have been developing it since the 1990s. Criminal prosecutions, dialogues, investigations and public debates organized by truth commissions to establish the reality of abuses, material or symbolic reparations to victims, reforms of the judicial system and security services: it is first of all a question of breaking with the past. The promoters of these initiatives also undertake to “heal” societies perceived as sick and to offer recognition to traumatized victims. They intend to train for the future peaceful and tolerant individuals who can ensure peace.
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