“Hybrid Warfare Is not Synonymous with Cyber: The Threat of Influence Operations”, Bernard Siman (Egmont, Belgium)

The recent cyber-attack on Ukraine’s governmental websites, widely attributed to Russia, has reinforced the widely held perception equating Hybrid Warfare with hostile cyber activities. This overlooks the broader and devastating impact that hostile influence operations can have on the economic and defence spheres. These operations are strategically more insidious and destructive.

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