On 13 December 2021, the Finnish Institute of International Affairs and the Trans European Policy Studies Association (TEPSA) organised an online discussion with Finnish policy makers in the framework of the InDivEU project on “Are coalitions of the willing the future of the EU?”
The meeting discussed the main findings and recommendations of the project “InDivEU: Integrating Diversity in the European Union”. Differentiation and flexible integration are already the reality in the EU. In recent years, differentiation has been increasingly discussed as a way to move beyond the multiple dividing lines within the EU and to increase the effectiveness of the Union. An interesting example from the Finnish perspective is the area of defence where member states have introduced Permanent Structured Cooperation, work in different minilateral formats, and currently discuss the role of coalitions of the willing in developing the EU’s rapid reaction forces. However, there are also widespread concerns about increasing differentiation for example regarding the rule of law, migration and asylum policy, and the Single Market.
What are the prospects of differentiated integration in the years to come? How does Finland position itself? And what does differentiation mean in the defence field?
Input was provided by members of the Finnish Parliament and other Finnish policy makers, as well as researchers from the InDivEU project.
Satu Hassi, Member of Parliament, Chair of the Grand Committee, Parliament of Finland
Saila Heinikoski, InDivEU researcher, Senior Research Fellow, European Union research programme, FIIA
Marta Migliorati, InDivEU researcher, Max Weber Fellow, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, EUI
Juha Jokela, Programme Director, European Union research programme, FIIA
Tuomas Iso-Markku, Research Fellow, European Union research programme, FIIA