This chapter examines the transition to low-carbon electricity in Poland and Hungary from a security–of–supply point of view. Despite large differences in emphasis, both countries aim to increase electricity generation, decrease import dependence and reduce or eliminate coal-based electricity, while turning to renewables and nuclear energy. In Poland, instead of a coal-dominated electricity mix accompanied by wind, natural gas and biomass, a coal–wind–natural gas–nuclear portfolio may emerge by 2040. In Hungary, the nuclear–natural gas–coal–biomass composition is scheduled to transform into a nuclear–solar–biomass–natural gas focus. While electricity is expected to be predominantly low-carbon in Hungary in 2040, such sources may provide only a bit more than half of the Polish power generation.
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