The established global patterns of appropriating and distributing natural resources are called into question by the current international context of climate change, energy transition and geopolitics. Placing the spotlight on Latin America, issue 130 of Revista CIDOB d’Afers Internacionals analyses various instances of ongoing socio-environmental conflict in protected natural areas (PNA) and their effects on human rights. It examines specific dynamics that have become Gordian knots that involve agents, actors and processes on multiple scales. It is crucial to understand these phenomena, including their contradictions and risks, because these strategic spaces and the ancestral lands of ethnic communities, which are subject to ecological protection, contain important deposits of minerals, energy sources and raw materials that are at the centre of contemporary global disputes.
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