Publications Istituto Affari Internazionali, April-May 2014

logo-IAI11.    Caspian Gas, TANAP and TAP in Europe’s Energy Security, by Ariel Cohen (IAI Working Papers 14|06) 14 April 2014, pages 16

Russia’s occupation of the Crimea and possible incorporation of Eastern Ukrainian regions demonstrated Europe’s vulnerability to Gazprom’s energy power. Whatever the EU’s reactions, diversification of energy supply to diminish Russia’s market share is likely to be one of them. TAP is one step towards the strategic goal of diminishing Gazprom’s huge presence in Europe. But in view of the proposed construction of the Russian South Stream, how could Central Europe, and especially Bulgaria, Romania, Austria and Lithuania, ensure energy diversification? What next for the Southern Corridor? Is Russia going to accept and tolerate infrastructure growth of the Caspian and other competitors south of its borders? Read more

  1. Europe’s Changing Architecture: Notes on Rethinking the EU-Turkey Relationship, by Rosa Balfour (GTE Policy Brief No. 16) 30 April 2014, Pages 5

2015 will mark 10 years of accession negotiations. Fast-forward to 2015, Turkey will have been through three election rounds and possibly deep political changes in a decade that has been characterised by the unchallenged government of the Justice and Development Party (AKP). In the EU, the leadership changes of 2014 will provide new faces and there are also deeper trends and opportunities within the EU which could help the two redefine their relationship: internally, the process of European integration is showing signs of shifting away from the “ever closer union” model to one with far greater differentiation and complexity. Externally, the events of the past few years could lead to a fundamental rethinking of the EU’s relations with its neighbours as well as a strategic reassessment of its friends and allies. This short paper aims to explore the options that may be on the table for rethinking EU-Turkey relations in the context of the debate on the future of European integration. Read more

  1. The Governance of Migration, Mobility and Asylum in the EU: A Contentious Laboratory, by Giulia Henry and Ferruccio Pastore (Imagining Europe No. 5) 30 April 2014, Pages 43

The management of population movements across national borders does not represent a single and unified regulatory field at EU level. Mobility of EU citizens, migration of third country nationals and asylum have long evolved as autonomous policy areas, driven by distinct policymaking logics. This paper briefly reconstructs the evolution of each of these areas, with a focus on governance structures and on core-noncore relations. We then move to identifying two major structural transformations (the economic crisis with its heavy polarizing effect and the wave of political instability in the Mediterranean) both with significant migratory repercussions which are producing centrifugal effects on EU migration, mobility and asylum governance. In the final section of the paper, we draw some possible institutional and political scenarios for each of these separated but ever more interconnected policy fields. We end by arguing that only by facing migratory challenges with more resources and in a more integrated way the EU can defuse their disruptive potential and enhance their positive dimension. Read more

  1. The Southern Gas Corridor: Europe’s Lifeline?, by David Koranyi (IAI Working Papers 14|07) 30 April 2014, pages 10

The Ukraine crisis brought European energy security and with it the Southern Gas Corridor back into the spotlight. The crisis is far from over, but it is already clear that both the scope and nature of Russia’s relations with the European Union (EU) and the United States cannot remain unchanged. As the strategic context changes and Europe becomes more and more concerned about Russia’s behaviour and reliability as an energy supplier, particularly for natural gas, the relative importance of alternative sources will grow further. Europe is in the midst of rethinking its entire energy and gas supply security strategy. The Southern Gas Corridor can and should be a critical component in this context, while its prospects should be assessed realistically. It is by no means a short-term solution, yet in the medium-term, the Corridor has the potential to become a major source of gas for Europe. The EU should deploy robust energy diplomacy as well as resources to speed up its development. Read more

  1. Priorities and Challenges of the 2014 Italian EU Presidency. Report of the TEPSA Pre-Presidency conference, by Emiliano Alessandri, Nicole Koenig and Marco Siddi (Documenti IAI 14|07) 7 May 2014, pages 11

Decision-makers and policy analysts from leading European think tanks and academics met in Rome to discuss the priorities and challenges of the upcoming Italian Presidency of the Council of the European Union (July-December 2014). This report offers an overview of the key themes discussed at the conference: the prospects for a more effective European economic governance and for new measures to stimulate a job-creating growth; the response to the Ukrainian crisis and its implications for the EU’s neighbourhood policy; the future of the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP); the reform of the EU immigration policy; the effectiveness and legitimacy of the EU leadership. For each of these priority themes, the report provides a list of recommendations about the initiatives that the Italian government can undertake during its presidency term to promote the European integration process. Read more

  1. Governing Irregular Migration and Asylum at the Borders of Europe: Between Efficiency and Protection, by Anna Triandafyllidou and Angeliki Dimitriadi (Imagining Europe No. 6) 19 May 2014, pages 33

This paper investigates recent developments in EU policy on controlling irregular migration and managing asylum at the EU’s southern borders. The paper focuses on the (im)balancing act between efficiency and protection in EU policies. Beginning by expounding the notion of governance of irregular migration and asylum, we turn to critically discuss current European border control practices with a focus on the agencies and policies in place (including the Common European Asylum System). The paper concludes by showing how the EU’s balancing act between irregular migration control and asylum management tips clearly towards the former even if it pays lip service to the latter as well as to the need of preventing the loss of human life. Read more

  1. Thinking the Unthinkable: Promoting Regional Approaches to EU Energy Policies for a More United and Effective Europe, by Christian Egenhofer and Jacques de Jong (Imagining Europe No. 7) 31 May 2014, pages 21

Regional approaches to EU energy policies have been termed the “Schengenisation” of energy, making reference to the Schengen Convention eliminating intra-European border controls. They aim to hone the effectiveness of EU energy policy objectives through enhanced policy coordination at the regional scale. Typically, this includes energy market integration while accounting for member states’ continued deployment of national-level policy instruments regarding the appropriate energy mix and the security of energy supply, which is foreseen in the EU Treaty. This report explores the potential for such regional approaches. It assesses lessons from existing initiatives to determine whether regional energy initiatives are an efficient, effective and politically acceptable approach toward reaching three EU energy policy objectives: competitiveness, supply security and sustainability. Regional approaches could possibly play an important role for governing EU renewables policy, which the European Commission has identified in the 2030 climate and energy framework as an important element for governance. Read more

  1. International Security Across the Atlantic: A Longitudinal Comparison of Public Opinion in Europe and the United States, by Philip Everts, Pierangelo Isernia and Francesco Olmastroni (Transworld Working Papers No. 29) 31 May 2014, pages 26 + 35 (Annex)

The paper compares the attitudes and preferences of American and European public opinion along four major dimensions of international security: threat perceptions, sense of community, support for Atlantic partnership and institutions, and orientation toward the use of military force. After a retrospective overview of the relevance of foreign and security policy issues to the public, a thorough review of the existing polling data shows that Europeans and Americans have a similar structure of belief along these four dimensions. They have comparable perceptions of threats, domestic priorities and comparable perceptions of friends and allies and a strong affinity for each other. Europeans and Americans agree upon the relative distribution of power in the world and on the relative importance of economic versus military strength. Most Europeans and Americans are internationalists and Atlanticists. They share a belief in both the necessity and effectiveness of multilateral, common action and international institutions. The only area on which the differences in views seem to be more stable is on the suitability and acceptability of the use of military force, with Europeans giving a higher priority to soft tools than Americans. Read more

  1. European Security Post-Libya and Post-Ukraine: In Search of Core Leadership, by Jolyon Howorth (Imagining Europe No. 8) 31 May 2014, pages 36 .

The paper analyses the future governance of the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). Unlike other policy areas, the main challenges for CSDP stem from the lack of a core leadership and common purpose rather than from institutional design faults. Alongside, the EU’s dysfunctional relationship with NATO has reduced the CSDP to a largely civilian crisis management endeavour in the wider EU neigbourhood. Moving forward, the EU ought to capitalize on sub-regional integration efforts in this field, while maintaining the EU as a whole as the basic reference point and common framework for deeper integration between groups of member states. Read more