“Re-globalisation with hiccups”, Andrés Ortega (Elcano, Spain)

It was once thought that globalisation would integrate everything into complex and varied supply chains, thereby avoiding the need to stockpile parts and materials. It was the age of “just-in-time”, invented by Toyota. But with the pandemic and other catalysing factors, the situation has changed: we are no longer heading towards deglobalisation, a prospect that did in fact loom when cross-border flows fell significantly –more in March and April 2020 than in the Great Depression of 1929–; rather, we have for some months been heading towards re-globalisation, albeit with occasional hiccups.

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