Recent publications from the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI)


Godzimirski, Jakub M. (Ed.), EU Leadership in Energy and Environmental Governance, 2016

This edited collection focuses on the impact of the changing global distribution of power on the EU’s energy policy and ability to project its approach to energy-related issues abroad. It maps the EU’s changing position on global energy, the impact of various factors on its energy policy, and its relations with Russia, China, the USA and Brazil.


Græger, Nina, European security as practice: EU–NATO communities of practice in the making?, October, 2016

European security is at a critical juncture and many have called for a more coherent and efficient response, involving both the EU and NATO. However, the primary tool for EU–NATO cooperation, “Berlin Plus”, has been stuck in a political quagmire since the mid-2000s, making a lot of scholars to conclude that this cooperation is obsolete and outdated. This article is challenging this view by analysing a range of informal but regular interaction patterns that have emerged. Using practice theory, it sheds new light on and explores how EU and NATO staff at all levels engage in informal practices on various sites in headquarters in Brussels and in field operations. A study of EU–NATO cooperation as practice focuses on the everyday, patterned production of security as well as what makes action possible, such as (tacit) practical knowledge and shared “background” knowledge (education, training, and experience). The article also discusses the extent to which shared repertoires of practice may evolve into loose communities of practice that cut across organisational and professional boundaries..


Hillion, Christophe Alfred Pierre, Leaving the European Union, the Union way : A legal analysis of Article 50 TEU, 2016

The outcome of the UK referendum on membership of the EU prompted a considerable interest in the modalities of a state’s withdrawal from the Union. This policy analysis examines the specific provisions governing this process, viz. Article 50 TEU, and its function in the European integration process. 


Melchior, Arne, TTIP and third countries: The role of trade policy spillovers, 2016

Some recent analysis of TTIP has predicted a more positive outcome for third countries because it was assumed that that trade barrier reductions in TTIP also benefited third countries in the form of ”trade policy spillovers”. The article examines the conceptual and empirical foundation for such spillovers and concludes that they are real and a potentially important phenomenon, but current estimates related to TTIP are uncertain and need a stronger theoretical and empirical foundation. Spillovers take different forms and vary across sectors and trade policy measures, and they often reach only a subset of countries rather than the whole world. The fear of trade diversion from preferential trade agreements (PTAs) can also create ”domino effects” whereby third countries initiate new agreements. Some trade policy spillovers can be expected from TTIP, but ”domino effects” are likely more important than the global diffusion of standards. The main reason is that regulatory differences between the EU and the USA limit the scope for harmonization of standards in TTIP.


Rieker, Pernille External governance as security community building – the limits and potential of the European Neighbourhood Policy. 2016

The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) was initially intended to create ‘a ring of friends surrounding the Union, from Morocco to Russia and the Black Sea’ (Prodi, 2002). Today, however, the ever-worsening security situation in the region clearly shows that the aim has not been achieved. With wars in Ukraine, Syria and Libya, the Union’s neighbourhood can therefore better be described as ‘a ring of fire’. Does this means that the policy has failed and that an alternative policy towards the EU’s neighbours is needed? Or should these developments be seen as temporary setbacks caused by external factors beyond EU control? By comparing the EU’s approach to its eastern and southern neighbours, this volume seeks to answer such overarching questions. The authors find that the EU still has a potential role to play in providing regional security, but that this role also risks being increasingly undermined if it does not increasingly take into account the broader geostrategic realities in both regions.


Rieker, Pernille & Gjerde Kristian L. The EU, Russia and the potential for dialogue – Different readings of the crisis in Ukraine. 2016

Recent developments in European security have shown the growing need for a better understanding of the security dynamics on the European continent. This article presents an analysis of differing Russian and European perceptions of European security in general, and concerning the crisis in Ukraine in particular. As much of the literature on these issues has been normatively driven, we aim to provide an impartial presentation and analysis of the dominant Russian and EU discourses. This we see as essential for investigating the potential for constructive dialogue between Russia and the EU. If simplistic assumptions about the motivations and intentions of other actors take hold in the public debate and policy analyses, the main actors may be drawn into a logic that is ultimately dangerous or counterproductive. With this article we offer a modest contribution towards discouraging such a development in Russia–EU relations. After presenting an analysis of the differing EU and Russian perceptions, we discuss the potential for dialogue between such different worldviews, and reflect on potential implications for European security. As the article shows, there are tendencies of a certain adjustment in the Union’s approach that may make a partial rapprochement between the two sides more likely.



Sverdrup, Ulf Lessons from the Norway-EU relationship. June, 2016

Whichever way the British vote in June, they should not believe that a vote to leave is a vote to become another Norway in Europe.