In recent decades, an expansion of the European Union’s external policy portfolio can be observed as previously internal policies – such as competition, energy, the environment, justice and home affairs or monetary governance but also gender, science, culture or higher education – have developed external dimensions. This book addresses the EU’s potential to become a more joined-up global actor in its external engagement. It uses a single analytical framework to examine three clusters of policies: EU internal sectoral and cross-cutting policies with long-standing external engagement, policies which have been undergoing considerable change, and originally internal policies whose external dimensions are comparatively more recent. The book identifies key explanatory factors for the emergence of (certain forms of) EU external engagement, including new sectoral diplomacies.
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