“The Old is Dying and The New Cannot Be Born (Yet?)”, Bienvenu Mukungilwa, Christian Chiza and Hans Hoebeke (Egmont, Belgium)

During the past two decades, Security Sector Reform (SSR) has been an important and visible part of international support for the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Most of this time, the Kabila government (2001–2019) did not show much commitment to effective reform. Most donors and international partners thus left the scene and suspended their programmes and support during the electoral crisis that started in 2015. The balance sheet of accomplishments in the past 20 years thus appears rather meagre.

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