It is well known that German Chancellor Willy Brandt initiated a European policy of deepening energy ties with Moscow 50 years ago. It was thought that this would lead to a strengthening of the European path of development of the USSR (then Russia) because of the growth of mutual commercial interests. However, Russia’s large-scale war against Ukraine has already finally shattered such illusions, but the dependence of European countries on Russian energy resources remains at large.
It is safe to say now that the long period of increased oil and gas supply from Russia to European countries is over. This happened because of the tectonic shift in the minds of most European citizens and politicians. Europeans have realized that Russian energy is not the solution to the problem, but the problem itself.
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