For Ukraine, 2021 was marked by two main stress factors — the COVID-19 pandemic and Russian armed aggression. But if the impact of the pandemic, despite the spread of a new virus variant, has decreased gradually with the economy and society adapting to it, the factor of Russian aggression, on the contrary, had an upward trend, culminating by the end of the year in Russia’s readiness to full-scale invasion. Under such difficult conditions, Ukraine has worthily celebrated the 30th anniversary of its Independence. The country’s development in 2021 was quite stable, with no significant crises, but also with no reformist “breakthroughs”. The government’s actions still lacked system or predictability. The Cabinet worked without an approved programme, while the main economic initiatives originated in the President’s Office and were largely focused on public resonance.
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