City networks have become a permanent fixture of the landscape of global urban governance. They have proliferated to an extent hardly imagined some decades ago, and today they constitute a complex ecosystem composed of more than 200 entities and counting (Acuto and Leffel, 2021). Initially, associations of local and regional governments were spaces mainly devoted to the exchange of information, cooperation, and lobbying activities of their members worldwide. Nowadays, they have been turned into real laboratories for innovation, policy diffusion and implementation. They are even seen as critical engines allowing the ‘glocalization’ of urban governance to occur.
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